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MARCH  15,  1950 

Prepared  and  released  by  the 




Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 
U.  S.  House  of  Representatives 

John  S.  Wood,  Georgia,  Chairman 

Francis  E.  Walter,  Pennsylvania 
Burr  P.  Harrison,  Virginia 
John  McSweeney,  Ohio 
Morgan  M.  Moulder,  Missouri 
Richard  M.  Nixon,  California 
Francis  Case,  South  Dakota 
Harold  H.  Velde,  Illinois 
Bernard  W.  Kearney,  New  York 

Frank  S.  Tavenner,  Jr.,  Counsel 

Louis  J.  Russell,  Senior  Investigator 

John  W.  Carrington,  Clerk  of  Committee 

Benjamin  Mandel,  Director  of  Research 



Espionage 1 

Gen.  Izyador  Modelski 1 

Nicholas  Dozenberg 2 

Jet  propulsion  and  aircraft 2 

Mary  Jane  and  Philip  O.  Keeney 3 

Paul  Crouch 4 

Atomic  espionage 5 

Nelson- Weinberg  case 5 

Hiskey- Adams  case 6 

Jordan  hearing 7 

Spotlight  on  spies 7 

Labor 8- 

United  Electrical,  Radio,  and  Machine  Workers  of  America  (CIO).-  8- 

Communist  Party,  U.  S.  A.,  and  the  international  movement 10 

Communist  activity  in  the  District  of  Columbia 11 

Minority  groups 11 

George  K.  Hunton 11 

Thomas  W.  Young 12 

Lester  B.  Granger 12 

Dr.  Charles  S.  Johnson 13 

C.  B.  Clark 13 

Jack  "Jackie'"  Roosevelt  Robinson 13 

Manning  Johnson 13 

Rabbi  Benjamin  Schultz 14 

Communist-front  organizations 14 

Scientific  and  Cultural  Conference  for  World  Peace 14 

American  Slav  Congress 14 

Congress  of  American  Women 15 

Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare 15 

In  retrospect 15 

Twelve  Comnmnist  leaders 15 

Harry  Bridges 16 

Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee 16 

Gerhart  Eisler 17 

Commimist-dominated  unions 17 

The  Hiss  conviction 17 

Files  of  the  committee 18 

Distribution  of  publications 21 

Recommendations 23 

Appendix  I.  Excerpts  from  Report  of  Commission  on  Subversive  Activities, 

Maryland,  January  1949 25 

Appendix  II.   Testimony  of  Yelverton  Cowherd 46 

Appendix  III 

Eastern  Division,  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America,  corre- 
spondence, etc 52 

Obzor  Publishing  Co.,  correspondence,  etc 68 

Polish-American  Labor  Council,  correspondence 73 

John  Gillin,  correspondence,  etc 73 

Review  of  the  Scientific  and  Cultural  Conference  for  World  Peace, 

correction 75. 



The  following  report  for  the  year  1949  is  submitted  to  the  House  of 
Representatives  in  pursuance  of  House  Resolution  5,  adopted,  by  the 
House  of  Representatives,  Seventy-ninth  Congi^ess,  first  session,  on 
January  3,  1945,  and  Public  Law  601  (sec.  121,  subsec.  Q  (2) )  adopted 
August  2,  1946,  setting  up  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities, 
and  authorizing  such  reports  of  the  committee's  activities  and  recom- 

Hearings,  investigations,  and  reports  of  the  Committee  on  Un- 
American  Activities  for  the  past  year  dealt  in  the  main  with  such 
aspects  of  connnunism  as  espionage ;  the  Communist  Party,  U.  S.  A. ; 
the  Connnunist  Information  Bureau  (Cominform)  ;  Communist  activ- 
ity in  the  District  of  Columbia ;  infiltration  of  labor  unions ;  propa- 
ganda among  minority  groups ;  and  Communist-front  organizations. 


The  committee  believes  that  espionage  is  one  of  the  most  deadly 
weapons  in  the  hands  of  the  American  Communists  at  the  present  time. 
Investigations  during  previous  years  indicated  that  the  Communists 
resorted  extensively  to  this  activity,  regardless  of  the  relations  between 
the  Soviet  Union  and  the  United  States. 

The  major  part  of  the  committee's  attention  during  1949,  therefore, 
was  devoted  to  unearthing  additional  evidence  of  Communist  activity 
in  this  field.  The  following  is  a  summary  of  some  of  the  testimony 
heard  by  the  committee  in  connection  with  its  espionage  investigations. 


Evidence  of  current  Communist  espionage  was  presented  to  the 
committee  by  Gen.  Izyaclor  Modelski,  former  military  attache  of  the 
Polish  Embassy,  who  broke  with  the  Communists  late  in  1948.  Armed 
with  a  mass  of  official  Polish  Government  documents.  General  Modelski 
appeared  before  the  committee  on  March  31  and  April  1,  1949,  and 
described  the  operations  of  a  spy  ring  working  from  the  Polish  Em- 
bassy in  Washington,  D.  C..  witli  the  aid  of  the  Russian  Embassy. 

He  testified  that  the  Polish  esi)ionage  ring  was  Nation-wide  in  scope 
and  was  directed  by  one  Col.  Gustaw  Alef-Bolkowiak,  who  was  offi- 
cially attached  to  the  Embassy  as  deputy  military  attache.  Docu- 
ments introduced  by  General  Modelski  included  Polish  Government 
instructions  for  the  operation  of  the  espionage  apparatus  in  the  Em- 
bassy, and  detailed  requests  for  every  type  of  scientific,  political,  and 
industrial  information  about  the  United  States.  The  Polish  Govern- 
ment also  asked  for  such  specific  military  information  as  the  strength 
of  the  various  units  of  the  armed  forces  and  new  technical  inventions 
in  that  field. 
L,  1 


General  Modelski  also  identified  an  Embassy  deputy,  Ignace 
Zlotowski,  as  head  of  a  special  atomic  espionage  unit  within  the  Polish 
Embassy.  He  said  that  similar  spy  rings  operated  in  the  embassies 
and  legations  of  other  Balkan  nations  under  the  domination  of  Russia. 


Conclusive  evidence  that  a  Communist  espionage  apparatus  existed 
in  the  United  States  as  early  as  1928  was  presented  to  the  committee 
last  year  through  the  statement  of  Nicholas  Dozenberg,  self-confessed 
former  agent  of  Soviet  Military  Intelligence  in  this  country. 

Although  Dozenberg  was  at  one  time  convicted  and  imprisoned  on 
charges  of  passport  fraud  in  connection  with  his  Connnunist  activi- 
ties, his  statement,  wdiicli  was  submitted  at  a  committee  hearing  on 
November  8,  1949,  was  his  first  public  revelation  of  the  operations  of 
a  major  espionage  ring  in  w^hich  he  had  participated. 

Dozenberg  revealed  that  he,  as  a  Communist,  was  recruited  into 
Soviet  intelligence  work  in  late  1927  or  early  1928  by  the  then  head  of 
Soviet  Military  Intelligence  in  the  United  States,  one  Alfred  Tilton, 
alias  Joseph  Paquett, 

Dozenberg  described  how  Tilton  and  a  photographer-assistant  by 
the  name  of  Lydia  Stahl  photographed  documents  in  the  photographic 
studios  of  one  Joseph  Turin  in  New  York  City.  Dozenberg  recalled 
that  Tilton  once  spent  an  entire  night  photostating  plans  of  the  British 
warship  Royal  Oak^  which  plans  he  had  intercepted  as  the  result  of 
his  espionage  activity.  Dozenberg  said  that  he  himself,  on  orders 
from  Moscow,  helped  a  Soviet  intelligence  agent,  Jacob  Kirchenstein, 
establish  an  American  business  and  credit  background  and  necessary 
contacts  in  1930  or  1931. 

Kirchenstein  operated  under  the  alias  Frank  Kleges,  the  ]iame  of  a 
deceased  American  war  veteran,  whose  papers  were  obtained  for  him 
by  Alfred  Tilton,  according  to  Dozenberg.  Dozenberg  also  admitted 
espionage  assignments  in  Rumania,  China,  and  the  Philippines. 

Among  others  in  the  espionage  ring  identified  by  Dozenberg  were 
Mark  Zilbert,  who,  in  1929,  succeeded  Tilton  as  head  of  Soviet  Military 
Intelligence  in  this  country ;  Boris  Devyatkin,  alias  Dick  Murzin,  in 
charge  of  Soviet  intelligence  for  the  New  York  area  under  Zilbert; 
xA^lbert  Feierabend ;  Richard  Bassow ;  Robert  Zelms ;  and  a  Dr.  Philip 
Rosenbleitt  who  is  presently  reported  to  be  in  Paris,  France. 


Attempts  of  a  Soviet  espionage  agent,  Andrei  V.  Sclievchenko.  to 
obtain  secret  information  regarding  aeronautical  developments  at  the 
Bell  Aircraft  Corp.  and  Westinghouse  Electric  Co.  during  World  War 
II  were  revealed  through  the  testimony  on  June  (>.  1919,  of  three 
witnesses  who  had  been  contacted  by  Schevchenko.  They  were  Joseph 
John  Franey,  rubber  repairman  for  the  Hooker  Electro-Chemical  Co., 
Niagara  Falls,  N,  Y. ;  his  wife,  Leona  Vivian  Franey,  librarian  for 
Bell  Aircraft  at  Niagara  Falls;  and  Loren  G.  Haas,  air  and  power 
research  engineer  formerly  employed  at  Bell  Aircraft.  All  of  these 
witnesses  notified  the  FBI  when  they  were  contacted  by  Schevchenko 
and  continued  contacts  with  him  under  FBI  instructions. 


Mrs.  Fraiiey  testified  that  Schevchenko,  posino;  as  a  purchasing 
agent  for  the  Soviet  Government,  tried  to  obtain  from  her  copies  of 
data  on  jet  propelled  planes,  swept-back  airplane  wings,  and  similar 
confidential  matter. 

Her  husband  described  how  he  also  was  approached  for  information 
by  Schevchenko,  accompanied  by  two  other  Soviet  aides,  Vladimir 
Mazurin,  and  Nicolai  Ostrofsky.  The  Franeys  said  the  Soviet  agents 
tried  to  tempt  them  with  offers  of  money  and,  for  Mrs.  Franey,  furs 
and  jewelry  from  Russia. 

In  corroborating  the  Franeys'  testimony,  Loren  G.  Haas  said  Schev- 
chenko tried  to  obtain  from  him  information  regarding  a  device  for 
the  modification  of  a  turbo-supercharger  which  would  increase  the 
speed  of  an  aircraft  50  miles  per  hour. 


Committee  hearings  held  on  May  24  and  25  and  June  9, 1949,  exposed 
the  associations  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Philip  O.  Keeney,  former  United 
States  Government  employees,  with  persons  previously  identified  with 
Communist  espionage  rings  in  the  United  States.  The  evidence 
showed  also  that  Mrs.  Keeney  actually  served  as  a  courier  for  the  Com- 
munist Party.  Both  had  subsequently  tried  to  obtain  passports  to 
foreign  countries,  but  without  success.  In  one  of  Mr.  Keeney 's  at- 
tempts to  leave  the  country  it  was  established  that  he  had  at- 
tempted to  leave  without  a  valid  passport. 

Mrs.  Keeney  personally  admitted  to  the  committee  her  associations 
with  Gerhart  Eisler,  the  ranking  Communist  International  agent  in 
the  United  States  until  he  escaped  the  country  following  court  convic- 
tions for  passport  fraud  and  contempt  of  Congress.  She  also  admitted 
associations  with  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Nathan  Gregory  Silvermaster  and 
William  Ludwig  Ullmann,  who  have  been  identified  by  former  Soviet 
espionage  agents  as  collaborators  in  a  spy  apparatus.  Mrs.  Keeney 
denied  actual  membership  in  the  Communist  Party,  however. 

The  committee  took  cognizance  of  an  FBI  report  submitted  in  the 
case  of  the  Unifed  States  of  Am,enca  v.  Judith  Coplon.,  which  disclosed 
that:  (a)  Mrs.  Keeney  delivered  a  manila  envelope  to  one  Jacob  Bern- 
stein immediately  upon  her  return  from  France  on  March  9,  1946; 
and  that  (b)  the  afore-mentioned  Bernstein  shortly  thereafter  trans- 
ferred the  envelope  to  Alex  Trachtenberg,  a  leading  official  of  the 
Communist  Party  in  the  United  States. 

In  questioning  Mr.  Keeney,  the  committee  developed  that  on  De- 
cember 9,  1948,  within  3  months  after  the  State  Department  denied 
him  a  passport  to  leave  this  country,  Mr.  Keeney  attempted  to  sail 
without  the  necessary  papers.  United  States  customs  officials,  how- 
ever, refused  to  clear  the  ship  on  which  Mr.  Keeney  had  purchased  a 
ticket,  and.  as  a  result,  Mr.  Keeney  did  not  sail.  It  is  interesting  to 
note  that  the  ship  involved  was  the  Batory^  the  same  Polish  steamer 
on  which  Gerhart  Eisler  escaped  from  American  justice,  and  that  the 
lawyer  who  encouraged  him  in  this  unsuccessful  attempt  to  leave  the 
country  was  Mrs.  Carol  King,  Gerhart  Eisler's  attorney. 

Mr.  Keeney  refused  to  answer  questions  asked  by  the  committee 
regarding  membership  in  the  Communist  Party.  He  was  employed 
by  the  Library  of  Congress  from  1940  to  1943,  where  he  handled  classi- 


fied  material ;  by  the  Foreign  Economic  Administration  from  1943  to 

1945,  where  he  was  Chief  of  the  Document  Security  Section ;  and  by 
the  War  Department  from  1945  to  1947. 

He  was  released  from  his  duties  at  Fort  Mason,  Calif.,  on  June  7, 
1947,  for  reasons  not  made  available  to  the  committee  because  the  com- 
mittee is  unable  to  obtain  information  from  the  executive  branch  of 
the  Government  pertaining  to  loj'alty  records  of  employees  of  the 
executive  branch. 

Mrs.  Keeney  worked  for  the  Board  of  Economic  Warfare,  later 
known  as  the  Foreign  Economic  Administration,  beginning  in  1942. 
She  worked  for  the  Allied  Commission  on  Reparations  in  1945  and 

1946.  After  the  FEA  was  blanketed  into  the  State  Department  she 
was  employed  in  the  Interim  Research  and  Policy  Division  of  the 
Office  of  Internal  Security.  In  1948  she  became  employed  in  the  Docu- 
ment Control  Section  of  the  United  Nations  secretariat.  Mrs.  Keeney 
refused  to  divulge  the  names  of  persons  tln-ough  whom  she  obtained 
this  latter  employment  on  the  ground  that  she  was  instructed  by  the 
Director  of  the  Bureau  of  Personnel  of  the  United  Nations  not  to 
answer  questions  relating  to  operations  within  the  United  Nations. 


A  comprehensive  picture  of  Communist  underground  activity  was 
offered  in  the  testimony  of  Paul  Crouch  on  May  6, 1949.  A  member  of 
the  Communist  Party  from  1925  to  1942,  Mr.  Crouch  held  such  respon- 
sible party  positions  as  member  of  the  national  executive  committee 
of  the  Young  Communist  League,  head  of  the  antimilitarist  depart- 
ment of  the  Communist  Party,  representative  of  the  Young  Commu- 
nist League  in  Moscow,  member  of  the  antimilitarist  commission  of 
the  Young  Communist  International,  and  Communist  district  organ- 
izer in  the  South. 

The  witness  testified  that  Nicholas  Dozenberg,  Soviet  espionage 
agent  previously  described  in  this  report,  introduced  him  in  1929  to 
the  head  of  the  Soviet  secret  police  in  the  United  States,  who  informed 
Crouch  that  Young  Communist  League  members  should  do  everything 
possible  to  get  jobs  in  the  State  Department  and  other  branches  of  the 
Federal  Government.  Crouch  was  also  asked  to  see  what  he  could  do 
about  obtaining  blank  passport  books. 

Crouch  further  testified  that  a  year  earlier  he  had  been  the  only 
American  representative  present  at  a  Moscow  meeting  where  detailed 
instructions  for  Communist  infiltration  of  the  armed  forces  of  the 
United  States  and  other  countries  were  worked  out.  Crouch  said  the 
Communists  were  told  to  concentrate  on  strategic  military  objectives, 
and  that  Panama  and  Hawaii  were  recommended  for  special 

He  identified  Max  Bedacht,  Walter  Trumbull,  and  Emmanuel 
Levine  as  leaders  in  the  American  Communist  Party's  efforts  to  carry 
out  the  armed  forces  infiltration  program.  Crouch  said  he  remembered 
that  the  Communists  succeeded  in  getting  cells  aboard  the  U.  S.  S. 
Oklahoma  and  into  Fort  Snelling,  Minn. 

In  the  early  1940's  Crouch  was  active  in  an  attempt  to  infiltrate  the 
radiation  laboratory  at  the  University  of  California,  Berkeley,  Calif. 
He  identified  as  his  Communist  associates  in  this  effort  Kenneth  May, 
Rudy  Lambert,  and  Marcel  Scherer. 



Communist  espioiicage  in  the  vital  field  of  atomic  energy  continued 
to  get  special  attention  in  committee  investigations  during  the  year 


By  pursuing  investigations  begun  back  in  1947,  the  committee  was 
able  to  offer  the  American  public  a  comprehensive  picture  of  the  opera- 
tions of  a  Communist  cell  in  the  wartime  atomic  project  at  the  radia- 
tion laboratory,  University  of  California,  Berkeley,  Calif. 

Witness  James  Sterling  Murray,  former  officer  in  charge  of  security 
and  intelligence  in  San  Francisco  for  the  Manhattan  Engineering 
District,  which  was  the  agency  responsible  for  the  development  of  the 
atomic  bomb,  testified  that  a'  highly  confidential  informant  told  his 
office  that  a  scientist  at  the  radiation  laboratories  had  disclosed  certain 
secret  information  about  the  Manhattan  engineering  project  to  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Communist  Party  in  San  Francisco.  From  information 
supplied  on  the  background  of  the  particular  scientist,  one  Joseph  W. 
Weinberg  was  identified  as  the  scientist  who  had  disclosed  the  infor- 
mation  referred  to. 

Murray  testified  from  knowledge  received  in  personal  surveillance 
of  Joseph  W.  Weinberg  and  Steve  Nelson.  He  was  corroborated  by 
statements  from  other  security  officers  of  the  Manhattan  District.  It 
was  disclosed  from  this  evidence  that  a  meeting  was  held  at  the  home 
of  Joseph  Weinberg,  in  Berkeley,  Calif.,  in  August  1943,  which  was 
attended  by  Joseph  W.  Weinberg;  Bernadette  Doyle,  secretary  to  Steve 
Nelson  during  the  period  he  was  the  Communist  Party  organizer  for 
Alameda  County,  Calif.;  Steve  Nelson;  Giovanni  Rossi  Lomanitz; 
Irving  David  Fox;  David  Joseph  Bohm;  and  Ken  Max  Manfred, 
formerly  known  as  Max  Bernard  Friedman. 

Confronted  with  Nelson  at  committee  hearings,  Weinberg  denied 
that  he  knew  or  had  ever  been  acquainted  with  Steve  Nelson.  He  also 
denied  knowing  Bernadette  Doyle.  The  committee  thereupon  for- 
mally requested  the  Department  of  Justice  to  institute  perjury  pro- 
ceedings against  Joseph  Weinberg,  relating  to  the  meeting  of  August 
23,  1943,  and  his  acquaintanceship  with  Steve  Nelson  and  Bernadette 

Supplementary  evidence  regarding  Weinberg's  Commmiist  associ- 
ations was  supplied  in  the  testimony  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  Crouch,  who 
stated  they  had  attended  Communist  meetings  with  this  scientist. 

Other  members  of  the  Communist  cell  at  the  Radiation  Laboratory 
were  identified  as  Giovanni  Rossi  Lomanitz,  David  Joseph  Bohm,  Max 
Bernard  Friedman,  and  Irving  David  Fox.  "When  questioned  about 
Communist  activity,  each  refused  to  answer  on  the  ground  of  self- 

A  detailed  history  of  Steve  Nelson's  activities  as  a  Communist  Party 
functionary  and  espionage  agent  was  made  public  for  the  first  time  in 
the  course  of  these  hearings.  The  fact  that  he  had  resorted  to  passport 
fraud  was  also  revealed. 



A  native  of  Yugoslavia,  Steve  Nelson  entered  the  United  States  on 
June  12,  1920,  posing  as  Joseph  Fleischinger.  He  joined  the  Com- 
munist Party  in  the  early  1920's  and  in  1928  was  granted  United  States 

Nelson  received  special  training  in  the  Lenin  School  in  Moscow  in 
1931,  and  in  1933  acted  as  an  operative  for  the  Communist  Interna- 
tional in  Shanghai,  China.  In  1936  and  1937,  he  served  as  a  lieutenant 
colonel  in  the  Communist-recruited  International  Brigade  in  Spain. 
Although  active  as  a  Communist  Party  organizer  in  California  and 
Pennsylvania  and  as  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party  National 
Committee,  his  most  important  assignment  was  atomic  espionage. 

While  Nelson  was  active  in  California,  he  renewed  his  acquaintance 
with  a  woman  whom  he  had  met  in  Europe  and  whose  first  husband 
had  been  killed  while  fighting  with  the  Spanish  Loyalists  during  the 
Spanish  Civil  War.  This  woman,  during  the  interim,  had  married  a 
leading  atomic  scientist.  After  meeting  both  the  woman  and  her 
scientist  husband  several  times,  Nelson  reported  to  his  superiors  that 
they  were  not  in  sympathy  with  the  Communist  Party  and  therefore 
would  not  be  of  any  assistance  in  atomic  espionage.  Nelson  then  pro- 
ceeded to  recruit  a  Communist  cell  at  the  Radiation  Laboratory  of  the 
University  of  California  which  was  engaged  in  research  Avork  relating 
to  the  development  of  the  atomic  bomb. 

During  the  course  of  the  committee's  investigation  of  Steve  Nelson, 
it  was  developed  that  Nelson  had  at  times  been  in  contact  with  one 
Ralph  Bowman,  alias  Rudy  Baker,  alias  Heinz  Zimmerman,  who  in  the 
early  1940's  was  a  high  official  in  the  Communist  International  "ap- 
paratus" operating  in  the  United  States. 


The  committee  had  developed  the  case  of  Clarence  Francis  Hiskey, 
Arthur  Alexandrovich  Adams,  and  John  Hitchcock  Chapin  in  1948. 
This  dealt  with  an  atomic  espionage  group  operating  through  the 
Metallurgical  Laboratory  at  the  University  of  Chicago.  (See  pp.  19 
and  20  of  the  1948  annual  report.)  In  1949,  it  pursued  this  inquiry 
still  further,  and  produced  additional  evidence  regarding  the  Hiskey- 
Adams  case. 

James  Sterling  Murray,  security  officer  for  the  Manhattan  Engi- 
neering District,  who  has  been  previously  mentioned  herein,  testified 
on  August  14, 1949,  that  after  Clarence  Hiskey  was  removed  from  his 
post  as  an  atomic  scientist  he  was  inducted  into  the  United  States  Army 
and  stationed  near  Mineral  Wells  in  Alaska.  Thereafter,  Murray  said, 
a  surveillance  by  Agent  Charles  Clark  of  the  Intelligence  Section  of 
the  Manhattan  Engineering  District  at  Edmonton,  Alberta,  Canada, 
disclosed  that  while  on  his  way  to  his  Alaskan  post  Hiskey  was  in  pos- 
session of  written  matter  classified  by  Gen.  Leslie  R.  Groves  as  top 
secret.  This  material  was  removed  from  Hiskey's  possession  without 
his  knowledge  by  Agent  Clark.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  prior  to 
the  removal  of  the  secret  material  in  Hiskey's  possession  arrangements 
had  been  made  for  him  to  contact  a  second  Soviet  agent  in  Alaska. 
However,  this  contact  was  never  made  after  the  secret  material  was 
removed  from  Hiskey's  possession.  Another  witness  testified  that  he 
had  been  introduced  to  Adams,  notorious  Soviet  espionage  operative, 
by  Hiskey. 


On  May  24.  1949,  Hiskey  was  given  an  opportunity  to  defend  him- 
self, with  the  assistance  of  counsel,  against  accusations  made  before 
the  committee.  He  refused  to  affirm  or  deny  the  charges  on  the  ground 
of  self-incrimination. 

On  the  same  day,  the  committee  heard  Paul  Crouch,  who  identihed 
Hiskey  as  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party  in  Knoxville,  Tenn.  He 
festified  that  Hiskev  collaborated  with  :Marcel  S.cherer,  the  "national 
head  of  Communist  work  among  chemists,  scientists"'  and  similar  pro- 
fessionals, who  operated  in  California  in  1941. 


On  December  5,  1949,  the  committee  received  the  testimony  of 
George  Racev  Jordan  regarding  alleged  shipments  of  Government 
documents  and  uranium  to  the  Soviet  Union  by  way  of  a  United  States 
Army  airport  at  Great  Falls,  Mont.,  during  the  war.  Jordan  stated 
that  'it  had  been  his  assignment  to  expedite  the  shipments.  In  an 
effort  to  determine  the  validity  of  these  charges,  the  committee  sum- 
moned other  witnesses,  including  Gen.  Leslie  R.  Groves,  former  head  of 
the  Manhattan  Engineering  District.  Since  the  investigation  is  con- 
tinuing into  the  present  year,  1950,  the  committee  will  withhold  a 
report  on  this  phase  of  its  investigations  at  the  present  time. 

The  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  was  gratified,  during 
the  year,  to  receive  a  high  compliment  regarding  its  espionage  investi- 
gations. In  an  appearance  before  the  committee  on  December  7,  1949, 
Gen.  Leslie  E.  Groves  made  the  following  statement : 

I  know  of  no  ease  where  the  committee,  with  respect  to  Russian  espionage,  has 
made  known  to  me  anything  that  was  not  correct. 

(  Xoit::. — Additional  hearings  have  been  held  to  further  develop  this 
case  and  are  being  printed  in  a  separate  volume.) 


By  the  issuance  of  the  pamphlet  Spotlight  on  Spies,  a  picture  of  how 
the  Soviet  spy  system  operates  in  the  United  States  was  offered  to  the 
Members  of  Congress  and  the  American  public. 

In  the  simple  popular  form  of  100  questions  and  answers,  the  pam- 
phlet describes  the  structure  and  methods  of  operation  of  espionage 
rings,  the  material  they  are  after,  and  how  successful  they  have  been 
in  some  instances.  The  recruitment  and  training  of  secret  agents,  the 
functions  of  couriers,  and  the  use  of  microfilm  are  also  described. 

The  information  is  based  on  voluminous  testimony  before  the  com- 
mittee regarding  Communist  espionage.  Much  of  this  testimony  is 
from  confessed  former  espionage  agents. 

Nine  thousand  copies  of  this  report  were  published,  receiving  wide 
reprint  in  the  public  press.  The  supply  was  so  quickly  exhausted  that 
the  brochure  was  reprinted — the  second  time  in  combination  with 
other  similar  pamphlets  in  one  larger  volume  entitled  "100  Things 
You  Should  Know  About  Communism." 



A  primary  Communist  objective  is  the  penetration  and  control  of 
the  labor  movement  in  the  United  States.  The  international  Commu- 
nist "apparatus"  has  supported  local  Communists  in  this  objective. 
The  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  therefore,  has  felt  obli- 
gated to  expose  the  machinations  of  the  Communists  in  the  labor  field. 


In  view  of  the  present  concern  regarding  our  national-defense  pro- 
gram, the  committee  considered  it  of  paramount  importance  to  pursue 
Its  investigations  into  the  activities  of  the  Communist  clique  at  the 
head  of  this  union. 

Testimony  heard  by  the  committee  regarding  the  United  Electrical, 
Eadio,  and  Machine  Workers  of  America  (CIO)  resulted  in  partial 
exposure  of  the  Communist  control  which  has  bee-n  exercised  over  the 
national  union  organization,  District  Comicil  G,  and  local  GOl. 

On  August  9,  19-19,  the  connnittee  heard  the  testimony  of  Charles 
Edward  Copeland,  business  agent  of  local  601  of  the  United  Electrical, 
Eadio,  and  Machine  Workers  in  the  industrial  metropolis  of  Pitts- 
burgh. Having  been  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party  from  1943 
to  1945,  he  identified  the  following  oflicials  of  this  local  as  having  at- 
tended meetings  with  him :  Frank  Nestler,  editor  of  the  local  union 
paper ;  Thomas  J.  Fitzpatrick,  chief  steward ;  Frank  Panzino,  assist- 
ant chief  steward;  and  Robert  Whisner,  subdivision  steward  of  the 
local  union.  He  estimated  that  from  200  to  300  members  supported 
the  pro-Communist  wing  of  the  union. 

Demonstrating  the  manner  in  which  Communists  utilize  unions  for 
recruiting  purposes,  William  Henry  Peeler,  another  member  of  the 
local,  described  how  Dorothy  Faraday,  district  secretary  of  the  UE, 
had  solicited  him  for  membership  in  the  Communist  Party.  He  said 
similar  approaches  were  made  by  Nathan  Alberts  of  the  union  staff, 
and  that  Alberts  had  proudly  referred  to  Tom  Fitzpatrick  and  Frank 
Panzino  as  fellow  Communists.  Mr.  Peeler  described  the  fluctuations 
in  the  policy  of  the  pro-Communist  bloc  in  the  union  in  accordance 
with  the  party  line,  and  he  also  described  its  support  of  certain  Com- 
munist-front organizations. 

Blair  Seese,  another  member  of  local  601,  testified  that  he  had  been 
asked  to  join  the  Communist  Party  by  Marshall  Docherty,  an  officer 
of  the  local,  working  in  collusion  with  Joe  Godfrey,  an  organizer  for 
the  party.  Fitzpatrick  had  privately  admitted  party  membership 
to  Seese.  Under  the  regime  of  Communist  officials,  the  union  office  had 
been  used  for  the  circulation  of  petitions  in  behalf  of  the  12  Commu- 
nist leaders  on  trial  in  New  York  and  for  the  solicitation  of  subscrip- 
tions to  the  Daily  Worker.  Union  mailing  lists  were  employed  for  the 
circulation  of  their  Communist  literature. 

Stanley  Glass,  recording  secretary  of  local  601,  testified  that  he  had 
been  solicited  to  join  the  Communist  Party  by  Thomas  Fitzpatrick, 
who  described  to  him  the  glories  of  Soviet  Russia.  Mr.  Glass  held  that 
district  council  6  of  the  UE  was  under  complete  Communist  domi- 


On  August  10,  1949,  Thomas  J.  Fitzpatrick,  Frank  Panzino,  and 
Robert  C.  Wliisner  were  given  a  full  opportunity  by  the  committee  to 
answer  the  charges  whicli  had  been  made  against  them.  They  all 
refused  to  affirm  or  deny  Communist  Party  membership  on  constitu- 
tional grounds.  Mr.  Whisner  a  dmitted  being  delegated  by  the  Friends 
of  the  Soviet  Union  to  visit  that  country  in  1934  without,  however, 
indicating  on  his  passport  application  that  he  intended  to  go  to  Russia. 
Wlien  he  returned  from  his  trip,  he  was  a  featured  speaker  for  the  New 
York  district,  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union,  on  December  12,  1934, 
together  with  Pat  Toohey,  a  leading  Commmiist  Party  official.  He 
then  wrote  for  the  magazine,  Soviet  Russia  Today,  in  the  January  1935 
issue,  a  letter  captioned  "U.  S.  S.  R.  Points  Way  for  American  Work- 
ers." Thomas  Quinn,  a  field  organizer  for  UE,  admitted  chairmanship 
of  the  Western  Pennsylvania  Civil  Rights  Congress,  which  was  cited 
as  subversive  by  Attorney  General  Tom  C.  Clark.  He  refused,  how- 
ever, to  affirm  or  deny  Communist  Party  membership  on  constitutional 

Joseph  Zack  Kornfeder,  a  former  member  of  the  central  executive 
committee  of  the  Communist  Party,  U.  S.  A.,  in  charge  of  trade-union 
activities,  testified  on  August  11,  1949,  and  identified  as  members  of 
the  Communist  Party  the  following  officials  of  the  United  Electrical, 
Radio,  and  Machine  Workers  of  America:  James  J.  Matles,  UE 
national  organizational  director,  and  James  Lustig,  a  New  York  dis- 
trict official.  A  voluminous  dossier  containing  Communist  and  Com- 
munist-front associations  of  Julius  Emspak,  UE  national  secretary- 
treasurer,  James  Lustig,  and  Matles,  as  well  as  the  affiliations  of 
approximately  100  other  officials  of  this  union,  was  incorporated  into 
the  record  of  these  hearings. 

On  December  6, 1949,  Mr.  Oscar  Smith,  Deputy  Director  of  Organi- 
zation and  Personnel  for  the  Atomic  Energy  Commission,  testified 
that  it  was  AEC  policy  to  consider  the  question  of  security  in  regard 
to  officials  of  national  unions  having  bargaining  contracts  in  atomic- 
energy  installations.  He  said  the  AEC  could  not  afford  to  have  work 
interrupted  at  such  important  installations  by  union  officials  who 
worked  not  for  the  best  interests  of  the  union  members  but  as  agents 
of  a  foreign  power.  It  was  as  a  result  of  such  a  policy,  Smith  stated, 
that  the  AEC  instructed  General  Electric  not  to  recognize  the  United 
Electrical,  Radio,  and  Machine  Workers  Union  at  the  new  Baiolls 
Atomic  Power  Laboratory  in  Schenectady,  N.  Y. 

Col.  Ernest  A.  Barlow,  Chief  of  the  Security  and  Training  Corps, 
Intelligence  Division,  Headquarters,  Department  of  the  Army,  also 
appeared  before  the  committee  on  December  6.  He  testified  that 
whenever  a  company  has  a  defense  contract  with  the  Army,  Nav^^, 
or  Air  Force,  the  Intelligence  Division  of  the  Army  investigates  all 
key  personnel  of  the  company  and  every  employee  of  the  company 
who  might  handle,  or  have  access  to,  classified  material.  Colonel 
Barlow  stated,  however,  that  the  Army  has  no  authority,  when  inves- 
tigating for  security  clearance,  to  include  union  officials  who  may 
exercise  control  over  the  defense  workers  through  their  union. 
_  It  appeared  from  this  testimony  that  the  Atomic  Energy  Commis- 
sion recognizes  the  risk  involved  regarding  national  security  through 
failure  to  subject  officers  of  certain  national  labor  unions  having  bar- 
gaining contracts  to  the  same  security  requirements  as  those  members 


normally  dealing  with  classified  material,  and  that  the  Atomic  Energy 
Commission  construes  the  Atomic  Energy  Act  of  1946  to  apply  to  the 
officers  of  such  a  union.  The  Security  Section  of  the  Department  of 
the  Army,  however,  contends  that  it  has  no  authority,  under  the  law 
applicable  to  it,  to  subject  such  officials  to  any  type  of  security  stand- 
ards, except  in  instances  where  an  official,  in  performing  his  duty,  is 
required  to  know  or  to  see  classified  material.  If  it  is  important  to 
apply  such  security  requirements  where  atomic  secrets  are  involved, 
it  would  seem  equally  important  to  apply  security  requirements  where 
secret  Army,  Navy,  and  Air  Force  contracts  are  involved. 

At  its  eleventh  constitutional  convention  in  November  lO-tO,  the 
Congress  of  Industrial  Organizations  voted  to  expel  the  United  Elec- 
trical, Radio,  and  Machine  Workers  of  America,  and  to  establish  a  new 
union  in  the  same  field. 



On  August  9,  1949,  Joseph  Zack  Kornfeder,  former  member  of  the 
central  executive  committee  of  the  Communist  Party,  U.  S.  A.,  who 
had  also  served  on  the  official  staff  of  the  Communist  International 
and  a  student  of  the  Lenin  School  in  Moscow,  outlined  for  the  com- 
mittee the  nature  of  Joseph  Stalin's  international  Communist  "appa- 

Mr.  Kornfeder  described  how  Stalin's  battery  of  secretaries  keep 
him  abreast  of  developments  regarding  Communist  Parties  through- 
out the  world,  and  how  Moscow  has  financial  control  of  these  parties. 
He  named  the  various  Soviet  colleges  for  training  subversive  agents 
from  all  parts  of  the  world,  including  the  United  States,  and  he 
named  individual  American  Communists  leaders  trained  in  such 

The  work  of  the  various  Communist  International  departments, 
including  those  dealing  with  agitation-propaganda,  organization, 
labor,  underground  activities,  youth,  women,  agriculture,  information, 
and  discipline,  was  outlined.  Kornfeder  described  the  functions  of 
Moscow  secretariats  in  charge  of  Communist  regional  affairs,  such  as 
Far  Eastern,  Central  European,  Anglo-American,  and  Latin- Ameri- 
can branches.  He  identified  a  number  of  representatives  sent  from 
Moscow  to  direct  the  affairs  of  the  American  Communist  Party,  and  he 
analyzed  Stalin's  methods  based  upon  his  ( Kornfeder 's)  experience 
within  the  Comintern  "apparatus." 

On  May  6,  1949,  Paul  Crouch,  who  had  served  as  an  organizer  for 
the  Communist  Party  in  North  and  South  Carolina,  Utah,  Alabama, 
Tennessee,  and  California,  described  the  operations  of  the  American 
■Communist  Party  in  these  areas,  including  units  in  the  Tennessee 
Valley  Authority,  one  at  Fisk  University,  and  another  at  the  Univer- 
sity of  California. 

Crouch  also  outlined  the  activities  of  the  Communists  in  Miami, 
Fla.,  with  particular  reference  to  local  500  of  the  Transport  Workers 
Union  and  the  Pan  American  Air  Lines  and  the  Progressive  Party  of 
Florida.  Crouch  called  Miami  "the  ideal  place  for  Communists  to 
direct  operations  in  Latin  America,"  because  it  is  the  hub  of  all  Pan 
American  air  lines.   He  said  the  Conmiunists  had  a  strategic  advantage 


there  because  Phil  Scheffsky,  whom  he  identified  as  a  Communist 
Party  member,  holds  the  presidency  of  TWU  local  500,  which  has 
jurisdiction  over  all  maintenance  and  flight  service  employees  of  Pan 
American  in  Miami,  San  Juan,  Puerto  Rico,  and  Balboa,  Canal  Zone. 



Hearings  in  June  and  July  1949  dealt  with  the  operations  of  a 
Connnunist  group  within  the  Nation's  Capital.  While  this  group  does 
not  include  Government  employees,  it  was  considered  worthy  of  special 
attention  by  the  committee  in  view  of  the  fact  that  Communists 
working  outside  the  Government  have  been  known  in  the  past  to  aid 
subversive  agents  within  the  Government. 

The  connnittee  also  inquired  into  the  activities  of  the  Washington 
Cooperative  Bookshop,  which  is  one  of  the  most  important  Com- 
munist fronts  in  Washington,  D.  C,  and  serves  as  an  outlet  for 
Connnunist  propaganda,  and  a  contact  or  meeting  place.  This  organi- 
zation, since  the  original  writing  of  this  report,  has  ceased  to  function. 


The  Connnunist  Party,  U.  S.  A,,  has  consistently  sought  to  create 
the  impression  that  it  is  genuinely  interested  in  furthering  the  welfare 
of  our  Negro  population.  The  party  and  its  spokesmen  claim  wide 
support  among  this  group.  Speaking  in  behalf  of  the  Communists, 
Paul  Robeson  boasted  in  Paris  on  April  20,  1949,  that  American 
Negroes  would  not  defend  the  United  States  in  the  event  of  a  conflict 
with  the  Soviet  Union.  To  permit  this  false  impression  to  stand  un- 
challenged would  have  been  unfair  to  the  millions  of  loyal  Negro 
Americans.  The  committee,  therefore,  arranged  a  series  of  hearings 
to  which  were  invited  outstanding  members  of  our  Negro  community. 
These  hearings  were  arranged  largely  by  Alvin  W.  Stokes,  a  Negro 
investigator  employed  for  a  number  of  years  by  the  Committee  on 
Un-American  Activities. 

As  the  first  witness  in  these  hearings,  Mr.  Stokes  said  that,  based 
upon  interviews  with  hundreds  of  Negro  leaders  throughout  the 
country,  there  are  not  more  than  1,400  Negro  members  of  the  Com- 
munist Party,  constituting  in  fact  about  one-tenth  of  1  percent  of  the 
Negro  population.  It  was  his  opinion  that  even  among  this  group 
many  would  desert  the  Communists  in  support  of  the  United  States  in 
the  event  of  a  national  emergency. 


On  July  13,  1949,  the  committee  heard  the  testimony  of  George  K. 
Hunton.  executive  director  of  the  Catholic  Interracial  Council  and 
editor  of  its  publication,  the  Interracial  Review.  Mr.  Hunton  charged 
that  the  Communists  sought  at  all  times  to  increase  antagonism  between 
whites  and  Negroes.  In  the  famous  Scottsboro  case,  for  example,  Mr. 
Hunton  said  he  became  convinced  that  the  Communists  "did  not  want 
the  boys  freed.  They  wanted  them  kept  in  jail  *  *  *  to  be  held  up 
as  martyrs."  He  declared  that  to  attain  this  goal  the  Communists 
resorted  to  '"inflannnatory"  tactics  of  "goading  the  South"  and  "rabble 


rousing."  As  soon  as  some  tentative  agreement  would  be  reached 
with  the  State  authorities,  he  said,  "a  group  of  Communists  would 
come  down  and  picket  the  courthouse  and  negotiations  would  be  called 


He  mentioned  the  fact  that  the  Communists  organized  a  picket 

line  around  a  Madison  Square  Garden  meeting  arranged  by  the 
National  Council  for  a  Permanent  FEPC,  because  it  was  not  held 
under  their  auspices. 

He  also  described  obstructive  Communist  picketing  while  negotia- 
tions were  going  on  for  the  hiring  of  Negro  players  by  major-league 
baseball  clubs. 


The  next  witness  was  Thomas  W.  Young,  president  and  publisher 
of  the  Guide  Publishing  Co.,  Inc.,  publishers  of  the  Journal  and  Guide, 
a  weekly  newspaper  circulated  principally  in  Virginia  and  North 

Mr.  Young  held  that  by  and  large — 

the  machinery  which  we  in  this  country  have  embraced  for  the  realization  of 
our  declared  way  of  life  is,  nevertheless,  accomplishing,  however  slowly,  tlie 
most  cherished  aspirations  of  the  Negro  group. 

He  felt  that  Paul  Robeson — 

is  now  so  far  out  of  touch  with  the  Negro's  thinking  and  his  everyday  emotions 
that  he  can  no  longer  siieak  authoritatively  about  or  for  the  race.  His  distant 
travels  and  his  latter-day  preoccupations  with  the  affairs  of  the  Soviets  have 
broken  the  bond  he  once  held  with  the  Negro  mind. 


On  July  14,  1949,  the  committee  heard  Lester  B.  Granger,  executive 
director  of  the  National  Urban  League,  a  social-service  agency  with 
branches  in  29  States  and  the  District  of  Coliunbia.  He,  too,  empha- 
sized the  meagerness  of  Communist  influence  among  Negroes.  In 
New  York's  Harlem,  for  example,  which  is  overwhelmingly  Negro, 
he  pointed  out  that  the  Communist-supported  candidate  for  President, 
Henry  A.  Wallace,  had  received  only  14  percent  of  the  total  vote  cast. 
He  said  a  similar  situation  was  reflected  in  Negro  districts  in  Chicago. 

The  Communist  Party — 

he  declared — 

seeks  to  establish  among  Negroes  and  the  rest  of  the  world  the  illusion  of  an 
influence  they  actually  never  hope  to  attain.  *  *  *  gudj  an  impression, 
skillfully  established,  would  *  *  *  obviously  strengthen  the  hand  of  Moscow 
in  power  politics  the  world  over. 

Mr.  Granger  described  the  methods  employed  by  Communists  in 
penetrating  Negro  organizations  as  follows : 

Their  methods  are  to  go  into  an  organization ;  if  there  is  a  fee,  to  pay  the  fee ; 
if  activity  is  the  measure  of  membership,  to  be  very  active ;  but  by  one  means 
or  other  to  get  a  large  number  of  members  to  go  in  and  to  gravitate,  generally 
not  to  the  presidency  or  highest  post,  but  to  some  minor  post  that  is  a  good  look- 
out post,  and  then  at  various  points  to  exert  open  or  covert  control  that  will  keep 
the  movement  going  along  Communist  Party  policy,  or  at  least  not  opposed  to  it. 



Mr.  Granger  was  followed  by  Dr.  Charles  S.  Johnson,  president  of 
Fisk  University  and  author  of  a  number  of  works  on  racial  relations, 
education,  and  the  South.     Dr.  Johnson  held  that — 

rhe  Negroes  are  rooted  in  this  country,  in  the  life  of  this  country,  and  they  seek 
their  fortunes  and  futures  here;  and  they  feel  *  *  *  ^^j^jj^  ^^  jg  infinitely 
better  to  rest  their  case  with  the  internal  correction  of  their  grievances  than  to 
fly  to  fates  unknown,  untested. 

C.  B.  CLARK 

Mr.  C.  B.  Clark,  of  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  the  next  witness,  is  a  descendant 
of  a  fighter  in  the  Continental  Army  in  tlie  days  of  the  American 
Revolution,  and  himself  a  disabled  veteran.     It  was  his  opinion  that — 

a  vast  majority  of  Negroes  have  no  respect  for  Russia,  no  love  for  communism, 
nor  belief  in  any  foreign  ideology. 

JACK  c' Jackie")  roose\'elt  robinson 

On  July  18,  Idld,  the  committee  heard  Jack  Roosevelt  Robinson, 
famous  second  baseman  for  the  Brooklyn  Dodgers,  recently  voted  the 
most  valuable  ballplayer  of  the  year.  His  historic  statement  was 
reprinted  with  acclaim  by  the  press  of  the  entire  country.  In  sharp 
contrast  to  Paul  Robeson,  who  arrogated  to  himself  the  right  to  speak 
in  behalf  of  15,000,000  Xegroes  in  the  United  States,  Mr.  Robinson 
declared : 

I  can't  speak  for  any  15,000,000  people  any  more  than  any  other  one  person 
can,  but  I  know  that  I've  got  too  much  invested  for  my  wife  and  child  and 
myself  in  the  future  of  this  country,  and  I  and  other  Americans  of  many  races 
and  faiths  have  too  much  invested  in  our  country's  welfare,  for  any  of  us  to 
throw  it  away  because  of  a  siren  song  sung  in  bass.  I  am  a  religious  man. 
Therefore,  I  cherish  America  where  I  am  free  to  worship  as  I  please,  a  privilege 
which  some  countries  do  not  give.  And  I  suspect  that  999  out  of  almost  any 
thousand  colored  Americans  you  meet  will  tell  you  the  same  thing. 


Manning  Johnson,  who  appeared  on  July  14,  1949,  was  formerly  a 
member  of  the  national  committee  of  the  Communist  Party  and  a 
member  of  its  Negro  commission.  He  received  special  training  in  one 
of  the  party's  conspiratorial  schools.    He  is  now  an  AFL  organizer. 

Johnson  identified  Paul  Robeson  as  a  secret  member  of  the  Com- 
munist Party,  who  has  ambitions  to  '^be  the  Black  Stalin  among 
Negroes.'-  According  to  Johnson,  Robeson's  contacts  were  restricted 
to  the  higher  echelons  of  the  party. 

A  six-page  record  of  Paul  Robeson's  Communist  affiliations  was 
included  in  the  appendix  to  these  hearings. 

Mr.  Jolmson  said  he  turned  against  the  ])arty  for  four  reasons:  (1) 
Because  the  party  was  antireligious;  (2)  because  it  stood  for  the  es- 
tablishment of  a  separate  Negro  republic  by  armed  revolt;  (3)  because 
of  its  callousness  and  insincerity  in  the  Scottsboro  case;  (4)  because 
of  its  support  of  the  Stalin-Hitler  pact. 
^  ]\Ir.  Johnson  introduced  into  the  record  a  comprehensive  list  of 
Communist-front  organizations  utilized  by  the  party  for  activity 
among  Negroes. 

62106 — 50 3  ' 



Rabbi  Benjamin  Scliultz,  national  executive  director  of  the  Ameri- 
can Jewish  League  Against  Communism,  appeared  before  the  com- 
mittee on  July  13, 1949.  He  presented  27  exhibits  from  the  Communist 
press  to  show  how  it  seeks  to  incite  the  Jewish  people  against  the 
United  States.  Some  illustrative  headlines  were:  "American  air- 
planes against  Jewish  immigrants";  "Nuremberg  in  Washington"; 
"They  arrest  only  Negroes  and  Jews."  Rabbi  Schultz  also  presented 
examples  of  anti-Semitic  literature  of  the  Communists,  including  the 
Moscow  Pravda  for  March  5,  1949,  and  two  cartoons  from  the  New 
York  Morning  Freiheit.  He  placed  into  the  record  a  list  of  the 
I)rincipal  Communist-front  organizations  operating  among  the  Jews. 


From  its  inception  the  committee  has  devoted  considerable  atten- 
tion to  the  exposure  of  Communist-front  organizations.  As  a  result, 
a  number  of  these  organizations  were  rendered  ineffectual  and  in  some 
cases  were  dissolved. 


With  considerable  fanfare,  the  Scientific  and  Cultural  Conference 
for  World  Peace  staged  its  meetings  at  the  Waldorf-Astoria  Hotel  in 
New  York  City  on  March  25, 26,  and  27, 1949.  In  a  report  subsequently 
issued,  the  committee  showed  that  this  was  part  of  a  so-called  "world 
peace  movement"  under  Communist  auspices.  Instead  of  promoting 
peace,  however,  it  was  intended  to  provide  a  forum  against  the  Mar- 
shall plan,  the  North  Atlantic  Pact  and  other  aspects  of  American 
foreign  policy,  and  to  provide  a  forum  to  support  Soviet  foreign 
policy,  to  incite  civil  disobedience  and  to  discredit  American  art  and 
culture  in  favor  of  the  Soviet  productions.  The  committee  presented 
the  Communist  affiliations  of  the  sponsors  of  the  conference  in  detail. 

Published  on  the  eve  of  the  Communist-inspired  World  Peace  Con- 
gress in  Paris  on  April  20-23,  1949,  the  report  was  utilized  for  infor- 
mational purposes  by  the  State  Department  and  was  roundly  de- 
nounced by  Moscow.  It  was  widely  circulated  in  colleges  throughout 
the  United  States. 


On  June  26,  1949,  the  committee  published  a  comprehensive  report 
on  the  American  Slav  Congress,  a  Communist  front  affiliated  with 
the  All-Slav  Congress  in  Moscow.  This  organization  spreads  Soviet 
propaganda  directed  at  the  10,000,000  Slavic-Americans  in  this 

The  report  traced  the  history  of  the  organization,  its  activities,  the 
Communist  affiliations  of  its  leaders,  the  various  supporting  Commu- 
nist organizations  and  publications,  and  the  collaboration  of  various 
Communist  embassies.  The  report  showed  that  the  objectives  of  this 
organization  were  primarily  military,  being  directed  toward  the  sub- 
version of  millions  of  Slavic-Americans  emploj'ed  in  our  basic  indus- 
tries. Included  in  the  report  were  examples  of  subversive,  anti- 
American  and  pro-Soviet  propaganda  in  affiliated  foreign-language 


Among  those  whose  Communist  records  were  included  in  the  report 
was  George  Pirinsky,  also  known  as  Nicholas  I.  Zaikoff,  and  George 
Necoloff.  Pirinsky ^is  now  under  $5,000  bail  after  being  arrested  for 
deportation  on  charges  of  advocating  the  overthrow  of  the  United 
States  Government  by  force  and  violence. 


On  October  23,  1949,  the  committee  published  a  report  on  the  Con- 
gress of  American  Women,  affiliate  of  the  Women's  International 
Democratic  Federation.  The  Congress  was  identified  by  the  com- 
mittee as — 

a  specialized  arm  of  Soviet  political  warfare  in  the  current  "peace"  campaign  to 
disarm  and  demobilize  the  United  States  and  democratic  nations  generally  in 
order  to  render  them  helpless  in  the  face  of  the  Communist  drive  for  world 

The  Soviet  control  of  the  Women's  International  Democratic  Fed- 
eration was  traced  from  its  inception  in  1915  to  the  present  date. 
Communist  or  Connnunist-f  ront  affiliations  of  the  outstanding  leaders 
of  the  Congress  of  American  Women  were  listed.  These  leaders 
included  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn,  Margaret  Undjus  Krumbein,  Muriel 
Draper,  Susan  B.  Anthony  II,  Gene  Weltiish,  Clara  Bodian,  Claudia 
Jones,  and  others. 

The  type  of  pressure  employed  by  this  organization  and  its  close 
adherence  to  the  line  of  the  Communist  Party  were  described  in  some 
detail.  Copies  of  the  report  Avere  distributed  among  the  principal 
women's  organizations  in  this  country. 


The  committee  on  June  12,  1947,  published  a  report  exposing  the 
Communist  nature  of  the  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare. 
These  findings  were  supplemented  on  jNIay  6,  1949,  through  the  testi- 
mony of  Paul  Crouch.  Crouch,  as  former  southern  organizer  for  the 
Communist  Party  and  an  active  participant  in  the  Southern  Confer- 
ence, related  how  this  front  organization  had  been  subsidized  and 
directed  by  the  Communists  from  its  first  meeting.  This  organization 
is  no  longer  in  existence. 



The  committee  would  like  to  remind  the  Congress  that  its  work  is 
part  of  an  11-year  continuity  of  effort  that  began  with  the  establish- 
ment of  a  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in  August 
1938.  The  committee  would  also  like  to  recall  that  at  no  time  in  those 
11  years  has  it  ever  wavered  from  a  relentless  pursuit  and  exposure 
of  the  Communist  fifth  column.  In  many  instances  in  the  past,  how- 
ever, the  positions  taken  b}^  the  committee  on  certain  questions  were 
not  immediately  supported.  The  committee  had  to  wait  upon  the 
course  of  history  for  some  of  its  findings  to  be  legally  substantiated. 
We  would  herewith  list  some  of  these  instances  as  applied  to  1949. 


In  its  first  annual  report,  dated  January  3,  1939,  the  Special  Com- 
mittee on  Un-American  Activities  aiuilvzed  the  nature  of  the  Com- 


munist  movement  on  the  basis  of  its  investigations  and  found  tliat 
the  Communist  Party — 

seeks  ultimately  the  overthrciw  of  the  American  form  of  govemmpnt  *  *  * 
and  *  *  *  rests  upon  hrutal  violence  despite  its  present  dishonest  professions 
of  belief  in  the  process  of  democracy. 

Year  after  year  the  committee  reiterated  this  warning  to  the  Ameri- 
can public,  and  on  May  11,  1948,  it  published  the  most  comprehensive 
study  of  this  aspect  of  the  Communist  movement  ever  made  by  any 
Federal  agency.  Tliis  study,  heitvily  documented,  was  published  under 
the  title,  "Report  on  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States  as  an 
Advocate  of  Overthrow  of  Government  by  Force  and  Violence." 

On  Jidy  20,  1048,  12  leaders  of  the  Connnunist  Party  of  the  United 
States  were  indicted  by  a  Federal  grand  jury  in  Xew  York  on  charges 
of  conspiring  to  "teach  and  advocate  the  overthrow  or  destruction  of 
tlie  Government  of  the  United  States  by  force  and  violence."  Eleven 
of  them  were  convicted  on  those  charges  in  Federal  court  on  October 
14,  1949. 


In  its  annual  report  of  January  3,  1939.  the  Special  Committee  on 
Un-American  Activities  urged  that  deportation  proceedings  be  "vigor- 
ously and  promptly"  prosecuted  against  Harry  Bridges.  It  declared 
that  Bridges — 

was  a  Communist  alien,  that  he  belonged  to  an  organization  which  preaches  the 
overthrow  of  the  United  States  (Tovernment  by  force  and  violence;  that  he  him- 
self advocated  the  overthrow  of  the  Governmi'ut  by  force  and  violence;  and  that 
he  had  likewise  advocated  sabotage. 

Harry  Bridges  was  successful  in  obtaining  American  citizenship  in 
1945.  But  on  May  25,  1949,  he  was  indicted  by  a  Federal  grand  jury 
on  charges  of  conspiracy  and  perjury  in  connection  with  his  obtaining 
citizenship.    His  trial  is  still  in  progress. 


The  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  headed  by  Dr.  Edward 
K.  Barsky,  w^as  cited  as  a  Communist-front  organization  by  the  Special 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on  March  29, 1944.  On  Decem- 
ber 4,  1947,  and  September  21,  1948,  Attorney  General  Tom  Clark 
cited  the  same  organization  as  subversive  and  Communist.  The  organ- 
ization complained  against  this  citation  to  the  United  States  District 
Court  in  the  District  of  Columbia  which  dismissed  the  plea.  On 
August  11,  1949,  the  United  States  Court  of  Appeals  for  the  District 
of  Columbia  upheld  this  decision. 

For  refusing  to  produce  books  and  records  subpenaed  by  the  com- 
mittee in  1946,  Dr.  Barsky  and  17  other  leaders  of  the  Joint  Anti- 
Fascist  Refugee  Committee  were  cited  for  contempt  of  Congress. 
Each  one  was  convicted  in  Federal  court,  and  only  two  convictions 
were  reversed  in  appellate  court.  Convictions  w^ere  reversed  by  the 
United  States  Court  of  Appeals  for  the  District  of  Columbia  in  the 
case  of  Miss  Helen  R.  Bryan,  executive  secretary,  and  Mrs.  Ernestina 
G.  Fleischmann,  executive  committee  member,  on  the  ground  that 
a  quorum  of  the  committee  was  not  present  at  all  times  during  the 
committee  hearings.  The  Government  has  petitioned  the  Supreme 
Court  for  a  rehearing. 



Tlie  committee  in  1947  exposed  Gerhart  Eisler  as  the  No.  1  leader 
of  the  Communist  International  in  the  United  States  and,  as  such, 
the  on-the-spot  boss  of  the  Connnunist  Party  in  this  country.  As  an 
outgrowth  of  committee  hearings,  Eisler  was  convicted  in  court  in 
1948  on  charges  of  passport  fraud  and  conteuipt  of  Congress.  While 
on  bail,  pending  appeal,  Eisler  succeeded  in  escaping  the  country 
aboard  the  Polish  steamshij),  the  Batory^  in  May  1949.  He  was 
immediately  awarded  a  prominent  post  in  the  Communist  govern- 
ment of  eastern  (Terniany.  This  further  corroborates  the  committee's 
early  Avarning  that  Eisler's  pose  as  a  harmless  refugee  was  mere 
cover  for  an  assignment  as  a  top  Communist  International  agent. 


While  this  report  was  in  the  process  of  preparation,  the  trial  of 
Alger  Hiss,  formerly  a  highly  placed  Government  official,  for  commit- 
ting perjury  before  a  Federal  grand  jury  in  1948  was  brought  to  a 
conclusion.  On  January  21,  1950,  Alger  Hiss  was  convicted  on  two 
separate  and  distinct  counts  of  perjury.  One  of  these  counts  involved 
a  statement  made  before  the  Federal  grand  jury  by  Alger  Hiss  that  he 
had  not  seen  David  Whittaker  Chambers,  a  self-confessed  Soviet 
espionage  agent,  after  the  year  1937.  The  other  count  involved  Hiss' 
denial  before  the  same  grand  jury  that  he  had  ever  furnished  any 
State  Department  documents  to  David  Whittaker  Chambers. 

The  name  of  xVlger  Hiss  was  first  brought  to  the  attention  of  the 
American  public  by  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities.  This 
case  was  reopened  by  the  committee  in  1948,  almost  10  years  after  the 
name  of  Alger  Hiss  had  l^een  furnished  to  United  States  Government 
officials  by  Chambers  as  being  a  member  of  a  Communist  cell  which 
had  as  its  purpose  the  infiltration  of  the  Government. 

After  an  extensive  investigation  had  been  conducted  by  the  com- 
mittee and  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  during  the  year  1948, 
the  Department  of  Justice  presented  the  Hiss  matter  to  the  Federal 
grand  jury  in  New  York  City,  ultimately  leading  to  the  conviction  of 
Alger  Hiss  for  perjury. 


In  its  report  of  IMarch  29, 1944,  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-Amer- 
ican Activities  cited  the  following  unions  in  the  Congress  of  Industrial 
Organizations  as  having  "Communist  leadership  *  *  *  strongly 
entrenched" : 

American  Coinmunicatious  Association. 

International  Federation  of  Architects,  Engineers,  Chemists,  and  Technicians 
(since  merged  into  the  United  Office  and  Professional  Workers  of  America). 
International  Fur  and  Leather  Workers  Union. 
International  Longshoremen's  and  Warehousemen's  Union. 
International  Union  of  Fishermen  and  Allied  Workers  of  America. 
International  Union  of  IMine,  Mill,  and  Smelter  Workers. 
Marine  Cooks  and  Stewards  Association  of  the  Pacific  Coast. 
State,  County,  and  jNIunicipal  Workers  of  America. 
United  Federal  Workers  of  America. 

(Latter  two  since  merged  into  the  United  Puldic  Workers  of  America.) 


United  Cannery,  Agricultural,  Packing  and  Allied  Workers  of  America   (now- 
known  as  tlie  Food,  Tobacco,  Agricultural,  and  Allied  Workers) . 
United  Electrical,  Radio,  and  Machine  Workers  of  America. 
United  Farm  Equipment  and  Metal  Workers  of  America. 
United  Furniture  Workers  of  America. 
United  Oflfice  and  Professional  Workers  of  America. 

At  a  convention  of  the  CIO  in  November  1949,  two  of  the  above 
unions,  the  United  Electrical,  Radio,  and  Machine  Workers  of  Amer- 
ica, and  the  United  Farm  Equipment  and  Metal  Workers  of  America, 
were  expelled  from  the  CIO  on  charges  of  being  Communist-con- 
trolled. The  remaining  unions  cited  by  the  committee  are  under 
investigation  by  the  national  CIO,  which  has  charged  them  with 
following  the  Communist  Party  line.  They  are  facing  possible  expul- 
sion from  the  CIO. 

The  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  in  the  same 
report  of  March  29,  1944,  also  presented  the  Communist  affiliations 
of  the  following  members  of  the  CIO  executive  board : 

Harry  Bridges,  president,  International  Longshoremen's  and  Warehousemen's 

Joseph  Selly,  president,  American  Communications  Association. 
Donald  Henderson,  president.  Food,  Tobacco,  Agricultural,  and  Allied  Workers 

of  America. 
Abram  Flaxer,  president.  United  Public  Workers  of  America. 
Joseph   F.   Jurich,   president,   International   Union   of   Fishermen   and  Allied 

Workers  of  America. 

These  men  are  also  now  under  charges  by  the  CIO  executive  board 
that  they  have  followed  the  Communist  Party  line. 


During  the  year  1949,  more  than  300,000  pieces  of  material  have 
been  added  to  the  voluminous  files  of  the  committee.  Such  additions 
have  ranged  from  official  documents,  photostats,  periodicals,  and 
pamphlets  issued  by  subversive  organizations,  circular  letters  and 
directives  of  the  Communist  Party,  to  crudely  lettered  handbills  an- 
nouncing meetings  and  programs  of  subversive  groups.  Each  piece 
of  material  has  been  carefully  analyzed,  classified,  and  indexed. 

The  files  of  the  committee  compose  one  of  the  most  comprehensive 
records  in  the  United  States  concerning  individuals  active  in  subver- 
sive groups,  the  programs  and  aims  of  un-American  organizations, 
and  their  propaganda  methods.  This  vast  reference  collection  con- 
tains information  and  documentary  evidence  unearthed  by  the  com- 
mittee in  its  investigations  and  studies  of  subversive  groups  during 
the  past  11  years,  records  compiled  by  other  investigative  agencies, 
data  from  the  files  of  law-enforcement  agencies  in  various  States,  and 
evidence  submitted  by  some  1,100  witnesses  who  have  testified  before 
the  committee  in  public  and  executive  hearings. 

The  committee  has  painstakingly  accumulated  and  carefully  pre- 
served more  than  a  million  documents  and  records  covering  un-Ameri- 
can activities  in  this  country  during  the  past  quarter  of  a  century.  In 
volume,  the  collection  has  grown  from  2  file  cabinets  in  1938  to  more 
than  200  today.  Constantly  expanding,  it  is  made  up  largely  of  irre- 
placeable documents  and  records.  It  has  been  consulted  by  more  than 
20,000  Government  agents  and  officials. 


The  collection  has  served  as  a  basis  for  much  of  the  committee's 
investigative  work.  As  source  material,  it  has  been  invaluable  in  the 
exposure  of  foreign  agents,  Communist  infiltration,  espionage,  and 
the  nature  of  subversive  movements.  It  has  served  as  a  means  of  in- 
forming the  American  people  of  the  menace  to  national  security  which 
lies  in  the  efforts  of  subversive  individuals  and  groups. 

During  the  year  1949,  some  75,000  cards  were  added  to  the  consoli- 
dated card  records  of  the  committee,  which  now  contain  470,000  card 
references  to  activities  and  affiliations  of  individuals.  These  cards 
serve  as  an  index  to  source  material  contained  in  periodicals,  hearings, 
reports,  pamphlets,  and  miscellaneous  exhibit  material  in  file. 

In  1949,  the  committee  heard  1,749  pages  of  testimony  presented  by 
the  60  witnesses  who  testified  in  public  hearings,  and  the  34  who  testi- 
fied in  executive  hearings.  Staff  members  have  compiled  indexes  to 
the  public  testimony  and  the  four  reports  issued  by  the  committee 
during  the  period  which  contain  references  to  4,G57  individuals  and 
3,171  organizations. 

A  total  of  52,878  references  to  individuals  and  11,764  references  to 
organizations  appear  in  indexes  to  public  hearings. held  by  the  com- 
mittee during  the  past  11  years  and  the  64  reports  which  have  been 
issued.  These  indexes  and  the  consolidated  card  record  file  facilitate 
investigative  work  by  members  of  the  staff  and  authorized  personnel 
from  other  agencies.  Reports  compiled  by  staff  investigators  paral- 
leling the  work  of  the  committee  have  been  indexed.  These  contain 
thousands  of  references  to  prewar  and  wartime  subversive  activities 
of  Nazi,  Fascist,  and  Japanese  groups,  and  information  concerning 
Communist  activities  in  the  United  States.  References  to  15,825  or- 
ganizations appear  in  these  reports.  Documentary  evidence  accumu- 
lated by  staff  investigators  has  been  useful  to  many  Federal  agencies. 

In  the  course  of  its  investigations  into  aims  and  organization  of  the 
Communist  Party  in  the  United  States,  the  committee  has  made  avail- 
able a  large,  completely  indexed,  and  readily  accessible  reference  col- 
lection of  lists  of  signers  of  Connnunist  Party  election  petitions,  which 
is  consulted  daily  by  investigators  from  various  Government  agencies 
as  well  as  staff  members.  These  lists,  obtained  from  original  petitions 
or  photostatic  copies  of  original  petitions,  contain  363,119  signatures 
for  various  years  in  20  States. 

Of  the  363,119  signatures,  some  335.660  have  been  indexed  and 
printed  by  the  committee.  The  committee  has  published  printed  lists 
of  signers  of  election  petitions  of  the  Communist  Party  for  1940  in  the 
following  States :  Arizona,  California,  Connecticut,  Illinois,  Indiana, 
Kansas,  Kentucky,  INIaryland,  Michigan,  Xew  Hampshire,  New  Jersey, 
New  York,  Ohio,  Pennsylvania,  Rhode  Island,  Utah,  Vermont,  West 
Virginia,  and  Wisconsin. 

The  following  Communist  Party  election  petitions  have  been 
indexed  by  the  committee:  California.  1932,  1934,  1936,  and  1938; 
1942  petitions  in  Colorado  and  New  York;  1946  petitions  in  Colorado, 
Connecticut,  Michigan,  and  Pennsvlvania ;  New  York  Citv,  1936, 
1939.  1940,  and  1945;  Philadelphia,"^1941  and  1946.  Lists  of  signers 
which  have  not  been  published  by  the  committee  have  been  indexed 
and  filed  in  the  consolidated  card  records  file. 

Throughout  the  year,  individual  files  have  been  maintained  on 
some  3,500  leaders  of  the  Communist  Party  and  its  various  front  or- 
ganizations, and  individuals  active  in  Fascist  movements. 


New  material  lias  been  added  td  the  huge  accumulation  of  informa- 
tion  concernino;  thousands  of  oroanizations  in  existence  in  the  United 
States.  Such  additions  have  involved  constant  research  by  staff 
members  to  ascertain  the  aims  and  purposes  of  new  organizations  and 
a  constant  check  of  old  organizations  which  appear  in  new  guises. 
In  many  instances  throughout  the  year,  source  material  on  file  has 
served  to  expose  deceptively  labeled  Communist-front  groups  seeking 
to  gain  control  of  civic  and  youth  organizations. 

In  investigations  concerning  the  diffusion  of  subversive  and  un- 
American  propaganda  in  the  United  States,  the  committee  has  t^c- 
quired  a  highly  specialized  collection  of  periodicals  and  pamphlets 
which  serve  as  a  valuable  source  of  information  in  the  study  of  motives 
and  policies  of  subversive  groups.  Much  of  the  collection,  which 
dates  from  1923,  is  irreplaceai)le.  It  contains  copies  of  pul)lications 
issued  by  Fascist,  Nazi,  and  Japanese  groups,  and  hundreds  of  pub- 
lications issued  by  the  Communist  Party  and  its  front  organizations. 

Each  month,  about  1,000  issues  of  the  major  Communist  publica- 
tions and  other  periodicals  and  newspapers  have  been  indexed  and 
added  to  the  files,  which  now  contain  various  issues  of  more  than  650 
publications.  In  the  collection  are  issues  of  more  than  90  periodicals 
published  by  the  Communist  Party  or  its  front  organizations. 

More  than  300  pamphlets  and  books  written  by  leaders  of  subvei-sive 
groups  or  issued  by  subversive  organizations  were  cataloged  and 
added  to  the  5,000  in  file.  Translations  of  publications  recently  issued 
by  the  Communist  Party  in  many  countries  have  been  added  along 
with  early  publications  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  ITnited 
States.  Included  in  the  large  collection  are  numerous  handbooks 
outlining  propaganda  techniques  and  methods  to  be  used  by  Com- 
munist groups  posing  as  champions  of  minorities  and  friends  of  youth. 
This  collection  has  served  to  expose  the  cleverly  camouflaged  recruit- 
ing techniques  of  the  Communist  Party  and  its  myriad  front  organi- 
zations, and  the  dissemination  of  totalitarian  propaganda  masked  by 
democratic  labels. 

The  committee  has  acquired  numerous  additions  to  its  large  refer- 
ence collection  of  hearings  held  by  other  agencies  investigating  sub- 
version and  reports  issued  by  such  groups. 

Hundreds  of  dossiers  have  been  compiled  from  information  in  file 
for  use  of  connnittee  members  and  staff  employees  in  connection  with 
reports  and  investigations  during  the  year.  Information  has  been 
furnished  to  Members  of  Congress,  other  congressional  committees, 
and  numerous  agencies  in  the  executive  branch  of  the  Government. 

In  1949,  staff  members  compiled  reports  on  the  subversive  affiliations 
of  2,473  individuals  and  597  reports  on  the  nature  of  various  organ- 
izations for  the  use  of  Members  of  Congress.  These  compilations  in- 
cluded all  information  found  in  the  public  files,  records,  and  publica- 
tions of  the  committee  concerning  the  individuals  and  organizations. 

In  Presidential  Executive  Order  9835,  dated  March  21,  1947,  the 
files  of  the  committee  were  designated  as  one  of  the  pertinent  sources 
of.  information  to  be  checked  in  determining  the  loyalty  of  Federal 
employees  and  applicants  for  Federal  employment.  In  this  connec- 
tion, a  number  of  liaison  agents  have  been  regularly  assigned  to  the 
files  section  of  the  committee  throughout  the  year,  where,  on  the  aver- 
age, each  agent  has  checked  for  information  concerning  200  or  more 


Tiidividuals  daily.     Many  other  agents  have  made  periodic  visits  in 
connection  ^yith  the  loyalty  program  and  security  checks. 

From  January  1  through  December  31,  1949,  liaison  agents  from 
Government  agencies  made  3,956  visits  to  the  files  section.     During' 
these  visits,  they  consulted  the  consolidated  cards,  records,  indexes,  and 
other  i-eference  sources  for  information  concerning  more  than  half  a 
million  individuals. 

During  the  year,  staff  members  have  consolidated  records  and  re- 
organized a  large  volume  of  material  to  make  information  on  file  more 
readily  accessible  to  accredited  agents,  who  make  their  own  checks  of 
<}onimittee  publications  and  the  consolidated  card-recoixi  file.  In 
the  course  of  such  checks,  however,  agents  often  wish  to  study  source 

The  conunittee  has  been  able  to  supply  hundreds  of  exhibits  unavail- 
able elsewhere  for  use  of  investigative  agents  in  connection  with  the 
lo3'alty  program.  Staff  members  furnish  such  exhibits,  periodicals, 
and  other  reference  material  requested,  answer  inquiries,  and  are  often 
requested  to  supply  information  concerning  organizations. 

The  files  of  the  committee  were  consulted  by  representatives  of  va- 
rious investigative  units  of  the  following  agencies  during  the  year: 

Riu-efiu  of  the  Census. 
Central  Intelligence  Agency. 
Civil  Aeronautics  Board. 
Department  of  Agriculture. 
Department  of  the  Air  Force. 
Department  of  the  Army. 
Department  of  Commerce. 
Department  of  Justice. 
Department  of  Labor. 
Department  of  the  Navy. 
Department  of  State. 
Department  of  the  Treasury. 
Economic  Cooperation  Administration. 
Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation. 
Federal   Conununications  Commission. 
Federal  Power  Commission. 
Metropolitan  Police  Department. 
National  Labor  Ilelations  Board. 
Securities  and  Exchange  Commission. 
United  States  Civil  Service  Commission. 
United  States  Coast  Guard. 
United  States  Secret  Service. 

Material  pertinent  to  investigations  made  by  Government  agencies 
during  the  year  has  been  loaned  to  these  groups  for  brief  periods  for 
photostating.  The  committee  has  also  furnished  such  agencies  with 
a  large  number  of  photostatic  copies  of  exhibits  in  file. 


The  j;pmmittee  has  long  believed  that  a  broad  program  of  education 
is  invaluable  in  the  fight  against  comnmnism.  The  committee  feels 
that  if  the  American  citizens  who  are  inclined  to  be  influenced  by  com- 
munism were  cognizant  of  its  principles,  aims,  and  methods,  they 
would  reject  this  ideology  so  foreign  to  the  concepts  of  our  democratic 

As  part  of  tliis  program,  close  to  two  million  copies  of  commit- 
tee publications  were  distributed  during  1949  by  the  committee  staff 
and  such  other  agencies  as  the  Government  Printing  Office. 

62106 — 50 4 


Receiving  the  largest  distribution  was  a  series  of  five  question-and- 
answer  pamphlets  issued  originally  in  1948  and  dealing  with  "100' 
Things  You  Should  Know  About  Communism  in  the  U.  S.  A.  *  *  * 
and  Religion  *  *  *  and  Education  *  *  *  and  Labor  *  *  * 
and  Government."  Demands  for  this  series,  which  exceeded  the  com- 
bined requests  for  all  other  committee  publications  issued  since  1938,. 
were  not  satisfied  by  the  distribution  of  000,000  copies  in  1948.  A  reso- 
lution passed  early  in  1949  authorized  a  reprint  of  250,000  additional 
copies  of  each  pamphlet  in  the  series.  For  reasons  of  economy,  they 
were  bound  as  one  volume,  including  the  pamphlet.  Spotlight  on  Spies^ 
referred  to  earlier  in  this  report.  Half  of  the  250,000  additional 
copies  were  allotted  to  Members  of  the  House  and  the  remaining  half 
were  distributed  by  the  committee  staff,  with  only  a  small  part  of  the 
demand  being  met. 

In  addition  to  the  publication.  Spotlight  on  Spies,  the  committee 
released  the  following  other  new  publications  in  1949 : 

Documentary  Testimony  of  Gen.  Izyatlor  Modelski,  March  31  and  April  1,  1949. 
Soviet  Espionage  Activities  in  Connection  Witli  Jet  Propulsion  and  Aircraft, 

June  6,  1949. 
Hearings  Regarding  Steve  Nelson,  June  8,  1949. 
Hearings  Regarding  Toma  Babin,  May  27  and  July  6,  1949. 
Testimony  of  Paul  Crouch,  May  6,  1949. 
Testimony  of  Philip  O.  Keeney  and  Mary  Jane  Keeney  and  Statement  Regarding 

Their  Background,  May  24  and  25,  and  June  9,  1949. 
Hearings  Regarding  Communist  Infiltration  of  Radiation  Laboratory  and  Atomic 

Bomb  Project  at  the  Universitv  of  California,  Berkeley,  Calif.,  vol.  1,  April 

22,  26,  May  25,  June  10  and  14,  1949. 
Hearings  Regarding  Clarence  Hiskey  Including  Testimony  of  Paul  Crouch,  May 

24,  1949. 
Hearings  Regarding  Communist  Infiltration  of  Minority  Groups — Part  1,  July  13, 

14,  and  18,  1949. 
Hearings  Regarding  Communist  Infiltration  of  Minority  Groups — Part  2,  July  14, 

Hearings  Regarding  Communist  Infiltration  of  Labor  Unions — Part  1    (IIBR- 

MWA)  August  9,  10,  and  11,  1949. 
Hearings  Regarding  Communism  in  the  District  of  Columbia — Part  1,  June  28, 

29,  July  6,  12,  and  28,  1949. 
Review  of  the  Scientific  and  Cultural  Conference  for  World  Peace. 
Report  on  the  American  Slav  Congress. 

Report  on  Atomic  Espionage  (Nelson-Weinberg  and  Hiskey-Adams  cases). 
Report  on  the  Congress  of  American  "Women. 
Statement  of  J.  Edgar  Hoover  (reprint  of  earlier  testimony). 

The  committee  received  a  total  of  111,681  copies  of  these  new  publi- 
cations listed  above  and  the  committee  to  date  has  filled  requests  for 
approximately  52,000  copies.  In  addition,  approximately  25,000 
copies  of  material  released  in  previous  years  has  been  distributed  since 
January  3,  1949. 

When  a  new  publication  is  released  by  the  committee  a  copy  of  it  is 
inailed  to  the  Members  of  both  Houses.  This  office  answers  daily 
many  requests  from  Members  of  Congress  for  various  other  informa- 
tion as  well  as  for  committee  publications. 

The  committee  has  also  complied  with  publication  requests  from 
foreign  countries,  including  New  Zealand,  Turkey,  the  Philippines, 
Cuba,  Brazil,  Hawaii,  Canada,  Mexico,  Germany,  France,  the  Domini- 
can Republic,  the  Virgin  Islands,  England,  the  Fiji  Islands,  British 
West  Africa,  and  Japan. 

Numerous  copies  of  committee  publications  are  sold  annually  by 
the  Government  Printing  Office.  The  following  is  a  break-down  of 
those  sold  last  year : 


Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  piiNications  sold  by  the  Oovernment 

Printing  Office  in  19.^9 

100  Things  You  Should  Know  About  Communism  in  the  U.  S.  A 117,  273 

100  Things  You  Should  Know  About  Communism  and  Religion 57, 182 

100  Things  You  Should  Know  About  Communism  and  Education 41, 169 

100  Things  You  Should  Know  About  Communism  and  Labor 61,351 

100  Things  You  Should  Know  About  Communism  and  Government 33,  439 

100  Things  You  Should  Know  About  Communism   (Series  Bound  To- 
gether with  Spotlight  on  Spies) 8,116 

Spotlight  on  Spies 8,971 

Hearings  Regarding  Communist  Espionage  in  the  United  States  Gov- 
ernment   60 

Hearings  Regarding  Communist  Espionage  in  the  United  States  Gov- 
ernment, Part  II 75 

Report  on   Soviet  Espionage  Activities  in  Connection  with  the  Atom 

Bomb    580 

Interim  Report  on  Communist  Espionage  in  the  United  States  Govern- 
ment     299 

Soviet  Espionage  Within  the  United  States  Government 254 

Citations  by  Official  Government  Agencies  of  Organizations  and  Publi- 
cations found  to  be  Communist  or  Communist  Fronts . 6,  933 

Documentary  Testimony  of  General  Izyador  Modelski 294 

Soviet  Espionage  Activities  in  Connection  with  Jet  Propulsion  and  Air- 
craft   28 

Report  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  to  the  United  States 

House  of  Representatives,  Eightieth  Congress 500 

Review  of  the  Scientific  and  Cultural  Conference  for  World  Peace 2,  004 

Report  on  the  American  Slav  Congress 208 

Hearings  Regarding  Communist  Infiltration  of  Radiation  Laboratory 
and  Atomic  Bomb  Project  at  the  University  of  California,  Berkeley, 

California,  Part  1 11 

Hearings  Regarding  Communist  Infiltration  of  Minority  Groups.  Part  2_  25 

Hearings  Regarding  Communist  Infiltration  of  Labor  Unions,  Part  1 —  10 

Hearings  Regarding  Communism  in  the  District  of  Columbia,  Part  1 5 

Report  on  the  Congress  of  American  Women 38 

Total  338,  825 


Looking  back  upon  4  years'  experience  as  a  standing  committee  of 
the  House  of  Representatives  and  almost  7  years  as  a  special  commit- 
tee, we  feel  more  than  ever  impressed  with  the  insidiousness  and  vast- 
ness  of  the  ramifications  of  the  Communist  movement  and  the  urgent 
necessity  for  unflagging  efforts  to  expose  and  curb  its  machinations. 
To  further  the  effectiveness  of  these  investigations  and  to  curb  the  sub- 
versive activities  of  the  Communist  Party,  United  States  of  America, 
its  agents  and  its  dupes,  the  committee  recommends  the  following 
action  by  the  incoming  House  of  Representatives : 

1.  The  statute  of  limitations  in  espionage  cases  must  be  amended. 
Under  our  present  laws  we  have  found  that  a  long  list  of  Communist 
operatives  who  have  committed  acts  of  espionage  and  treachery  in  the 
interest  of  a  foreign  power  have  remained  immune  to  punishment  due 
to  the  present  form  of  the  statute  of  limitations. 

2.  The  nature  of  modern  war — the  fact  that  nations  find  them- 
selves confronted  nowadays  with  undeclared  but  actual  warfare — 
makes  it  necessary  that  the  legal  definition  of  treason,  and  the  penalties 
attached  thereto,  be  broadened  to  cover  a  period  like  the  present  cold 


3.  Experience  during  the  past  5  years  has  demonstrated  that  the 
embassies  of  Communist-dominated  countries  constitute  a  focal  point 
of  Communist  espionage  and  propaganda.  Such  activity  should  be 
limited  by  proper  safeguards  sternly  enforced. 

4.  H.  R.  3903  providing  safeguards  against  the  employment  of 
subversive  individuals  in  defense  plants  should  be  adopted. 

5.  H.  R.  10  providing  for  the  supervision  and  detention  of  unde- 
portable  aliens  should  be  enacted  into  law  in  order  to  deal  with  thou- 
sands of  alien  Communists  refused  acceptance  by  the  country  of  their 

6.  It  would  be  advantageous  to  enact  legislation  creating  a  presump- 
tion of  law  that  a  committee  quorum,  once  established,  continues  to 

7.  Effective  action  against  the  well-coordinated,  interlocking  Com- 
munist network  requires  the  utmost  teamwork  among  branches  of  the 
Government.  Petty  rivalry  or  separatism  can  only  work  to  the  ad- 
vantage of  the  Communists.  A  small  bit  of  information  in  the  hands 
of  one  agency  may  well  be  the  missing  link  of  an  entire  chain  of  evi- 
dence in  the  hands  of  another  agency.  Hence,  the  committee  recom- 
mends the  fullest  cooperation  between  legislative  and  executive  arms 
of  the  Government  in  the  matter  of  dealing  with  subversive  activities. 
Modification  of  the  Executive  order  in  loyalty  and  investigative 
cases  is  i-ecommended  for  consideration. 

8.  In  a  number  of  cases  we  have  found  that  subversive  elements  will 
submit  information  to  one  arm  of  the  Government  when  it  suits  their 
purpose  and  will  withhold  it  from  another.  Communist  trade  union- 
ists will  deny  their  affiliations  before  the  National  Labor  Relations 
Board  and  refuse  to  affirm  or  deny  them  before  a  congressional  com- 
mittee. They  will  deny  them  in  filling  out  Form  57  in  applying  for 
Federal  employment  and  refuse  to  affirm  or  deny  such  affiliations  be- 
fore this  committee.  It  is  highly  necessary  that  the  Department  of 
Justice  take  effective  action  against  those  who  would  make  a  tragic 
joke  of  law  enforcement.  Here,  again,  there  is  room  for  maximum  co- 
operation between  the  legislative  and  executive  arms  of  Government. 

9.  In  connection  with  national  defense  contracts  involving  secret 
and  classified  work  for  the  Atomic  Energy  Commission,  the  iVrmy, 
Navy,  and  Air  Force,  legislation  should  be  enacted  which  subjects 
officers  of  national  labor  unions  having  bargaining  contracts  to  the 
same  security  standards  as  members  who  have  access  to  secret  or 
classified  material. 



The  Communist  problem  is  comparatively  new  in  the  field  of  Ameri- 
can jurisprudence.  This  accounts  for  the  paucity  of  literature  regard- 
ing communism  in  the  field  of  law.  In  fact,  there  are  evidences  of 
confusion  on  the  subject  even  among  leading  members  of  our  legal 
profession  who  have  not  had  the  time  and  the  opportunity  to  apply 
themselves  to  an  intensive  study  of  this  complicated  subject.  The 
committee  has  therefore  decided  to  append  to  this  report  a  digest  of 
existing  National  and  State  legislation  on  subversive  activities  which 
was  made  by  the  Maryland  State  rommission  on  Subversive  Activities, 
under  the  chairmanship  of  Frank  B.  Ober. 

We  hope  thereby  to  stimulate  fruitful  discussion  on  this  vital  subject 
in  law  journals  and  law  schools,  and  among  National  and  State  legis- 
lators and  law-enforcement  officers.^ 

Excerpts  Fkum  Report  of  Commission  ox   Subversive  Activities,  Maryland, 

January  1949  (pp.  72-99) 

in  general 

Statutes  against  snbrersive  activities  have  their  origin  in  the  treason  lavrs  of 
the  United  States,  enacted  in  1790,  and  date  back  to  the  Civil  War  on  a  state 
level.  With  the  advent  of  the  recent  world  conflict,  and  during  the  period  of 
unrest  which  has  followed  in  its  wake,  there  has  been  an  increasing  tendency 
on  the  part  of  the  State  Legislatures  and  of  the  Congress  to  enact  legislation 
designed  to  suppress  foreign  propaganda  and  subversive  activities. 

In  addition  to  the  treason  laws,  general  statutes  against  conspiracy  and  incite- 
ment to  crime,  and  various  war  measures  found  in  many  states,  the  legislative 
approach  to  this  problem  has  assumed  a  variety  of  forms.  These  include : 
general  sedition,  criminal  anarchy,  and  criminal  syndicalism  laws ;  statutes 
against  the  display  of  sjTiibols  denoting  sympathy  with  the  ideals  or  forms  of 
government  inimical  to  American  concepts,  commonly  called  red-tlag  laws; 
statutes  designed  to  suppress  the  activities  of  political  parties  and  candidates  who 
are  antagonistic  to  the  American  form  of  government;  legislation  requiring 
teachers,  public  officers,  employees  and  others  to  subscribe  to  oatlis  of  loyalty  to 
support  state  and  federal  constitutions  ;  and  various  measures  penalizing  or  with- 
holding privileges  from  persons  or  organizations  guilty  of  subversive  activities. 

1  Since  the  report  of  the  Maryland  Commission  on  Subversive  Activities  was  released 
in  January  1949  various  State  legislatures  have  shown  increasing  concern  with  the 
problem  of  communism.     According  to  Newsweek.  April  11,  1949,  p.  24.  for  example: 

"The  New  York  State  Legislature  passed  a  bill  directing  the  State  Board  of  Regents  to 
purge  the  public  schools  of  teachers  with  subversive  leanings. 

"The  Texas  Legislature  passed  a  bill  instructing  the  presidents  of  all  State-supported 
colleges  to  expel  all  Communist  students  and  teachers. 

"In  Kansas,  a  bill  passed  making  'subversive  activities'  punishable  by  fines  and  jail 

"The  Illinois  Legislature  prepared  to  pass  bills  making  it  a  crime  to  be  a  Communist, 
and  barring  Communists  as  teachers  from  the  schools. 

"In  New  Jersey  four  bills  barring  disloyal  persons  from  State  jobs  seemed  sure  to  pas.s. 

"In  Georgia  and  New  Mexico,  new  laws  were  on  the  books  barring  subversives  from 
holding  public  jobs. 

"Similar  legislation  was  on  the  way  in  Missouri,  Oregon,  Connecticut,  New  Hampshire, 
and  California." 



One  or  more  of  these  types  of  measures  have  been  enacted  in  practically  every 
state.  Maryland,  however,  stands  virtually  alone  in  the  respect  it  has,  at  the 
moment,  practically  no  legislation  touching  any  of  these  matters. 

This  digest  endeavors  to  summarize  all  pertinent  statutes  of  the  United  States 
and  of  the  several  states  as  they  now  exist.  Summaries  of  the  general  and 
special  laws,  with  citations,  have  been  supplied  and,  for  convenience,  the  material 
has  been  arranged  both  by  states  and  by  subject  matter. 

Questions  of  constitutionality  and  prolilems  of  administration  and  of  enforce- 
ment are  not  included  herein.  These  matters  are  of  utmost  importance  but  are 
left  for  consideration  by  the  Commission. 

For  convenience,  tlu-ee  appendices  have  been  prepared  as  follows : 
Appendix  A — Federal  Statutes. 
Appendix  B — State  Statutes — By  States. 
Appendix  C — State  Statutes — By  Subject  Matter. 

In  addition  thereto  and  for  ready  reference,  a  table  of  all  state  legislation 
will  be  found  on  page  77.' 


The  general  laws  against  subversive  activities  are  usually  designated  as 
sedition,  criminal  anarchy,  and  criminal  syndicalism  statutes.  More  than  three- 
fourths  of  the  states  have  laws  of  one  or  more  of  these  types,  some  liaving  single 
statutes  including  two  or  more  thereof.  This  digest  does  not  include  sabotage 
and  related  statutes  of  the  other  states,  since  Maryland  enacted  during  the  recent 
war  the  model  sabotage  statute  proposed  for  State  adoption  and  the  Commission 
has  made  recommendations  with  respect  to  its  expiration  date.  Excluded  also 
are  general  conspiracy  statutes  which  may  be  held  to  cover  many  types  of  sub- 
version, laws  against  incitement  to  crime  generally,  and  numerous  other  measures 
effective  during  wartime  only. 

The  effect  of  these  general  laws  against  subversive  activities  is  to  penalize  the 
advocacy  in  any  manner  of  the  overthrow  of  the  government  of  the  United  States 
or  of  the  state  by  force  or  violence,  or  by  other  unlawful  means.  It  is  true  that 
each  of  the  statutes,  by  whatever  name  it  is  designated — whether  criminal 
anarchy,  criminal  syndicalism,  or  sedition — defines  the  term  for  its  own  purposes, 
and  there  are  numerous  variations  in  the  terminology  used,  but  the  practical 
effect  of  each  would  probably  be  very  similar.  The  statutory  lines  of  distinction 
between  these  different  offenses  is  so  fine  as  in  many  instances  to  be  almost 


Sedition  might  be  termed  a  mild  form  of  treason.  Treason  implies  the  use  of 
force  or  violence  against  the  government,  seeking  its  overthrow  by  levying  war 
or  giving  aid  and  comfort  to  its  enemies.  Sedition  has  a  similar  connotation, 
but  its  objectives  are  sought  by  means  of  oral  or  printed  utterances,  or  similar  acts 
by  which  the  state  is  held  in  contempt,  people  are  incited  to  flout  its  laws,  and  it  is 
made  difficult  for  the  state  to  carry  out  its  inherent  governmental  functions.  Open 
violence  is  not  involved,  but  the  tranquillity  of  the  state  is  disturbed. 

Although  the  terminology  used  in  criminal  syndicalism  and  criminal  anarchy 
statutes  is  relatively  uniform,  there  is  greater  variance  in  the  wording  of  sedition 
laws.     The  Illinois  sedition  statute  may  be  considered  representative : 

"It  shall  be  unlawful  for  any  person  openly  to  advocate,  by  word  of  mouth 
or  writing,  the  reformation  or  overthrow,  by  violence  or  any  other  unlawful 
means,  of  the  representative  form  of  government  now  secured  to  the  citizens  of 
the  United  States  and  the  several  states  by  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
and  the  constituions  of  the  several  states." 

Many  of  these  laws  also  specifically  include  the  uttering,  writing,  or  publication 
of  abusive  matter  against  the  flag,  military  forces,  or  unifoi-ms  of  the  nation, 
when  calculated  to  bring  them  into  disrepute.  In  New  Jersey,  incidentally,  the 
sedition  statute  expressly  penalizes  the  inciting  of  an  insurrection  among  any 
class  or  portion  of  the  population.  See  also  the  Virginia  statute  which  prohibits 
conspiracy  for  the  incitement  of  violence  between  whites  and  negroes,  and 
vice  versa.  ; 

*  Page  77  refers  to  original  publication.     See  pp.  29  and  30,  this  report. 


Criminal  Anarchy 

Anarchism  is  the  oldest  of  subversive  ideologies  and  advocates  the  complete 
-elimination  of  the  state,  usually  by  assassination  of  the  heads  thereof.  The 
Alabama  statutory  definition  might  be  considered  typical  of  the  various  laws 
on  this  subject : 

"Criminal  anarchy  is  the  doctrine  that  organized  government  should  be  over- 
thrown by  force  or  violence,  or  by  assassination  of  the  executive  head  or  of  the 
executive  officials  of  government,  or  by  any  unlawful  means.  The  advocating  of 
such  doctrine  either  by  word  of  mouth  or  writing  is  a  felony." 

Criminal  SjindicaUsm 

The  main  difference  between  anarchy  and  syndicalism  is  the  fact  that  in 
syndicalism  class  distinction  is  introduced.  The  latter  is  a  type  of  trade-unionism 
on  an  industry-wide  basis.  It  advocates  the  class  struggle  between  the  worker 
iind  the  property  owner  leading  up  to  social  revolution  and  collectivism.  The 
workers  are  to  gain  control  of  each  industry  through  strikes,  sabotage,  and  the 
boycott.  It  is  a  militant  movement  aimed  at  both  the  property  owner  and  the 
state.  The  goal  is  a  free  and  flexible  system  of  autonomous  syndicates  in  all 
fields  of  production  and  distribution.  Each  industry  is  to  be  managed  by  the 
workers,  then  a  federation  of  all  fields  of  industry  would  be  formed  which  in  turn 
Avould  comprise  the  state. 

Criminal  syndicalism  statutes  resemble  a  blend  of  criminal  anarchy  laws  and 
measures  against  incitement  to  insurrection.  They  include  not  only  the  political, 
but  also  the  industrial  and  economic  splaeres.  The  Iowa  definition  may  be 
considered  representative: 

"Criminal  .syndicalism  is  the  doctrine  which  advocates  crime,  sabotage,  vio- 
lence, or  other  unlawful  methods  of  terrorism  as  a  means  of  accomplishing  in- 
dustrial or  political  reform.  The  advocacy  of  such  doctrine,  whether  by  word  of 
mouth  or  writing  is  a  felony.     *     *     *" 

Normally  a  definition  of  this  type  would  seem  to  apply  to  very  few  of  the 
organizations  which  dare  offer  themselves  to  the  American  public.  However, 
the  courts  of  last  resort  of  at  least  two  states  have  held  the  advocacy  of  the  doc- 
trines of  the  Communist  Party  to  be  within  the  purview  of  criminal  syndicalism 
statutes  {People  v.  Ruthetihiirg  (229  Mich.  315)  ;  State  v.  Boloff  (138  Ore.  568)). 

The  most  unusual  criminal  syndicalism  statute  is  the  Washington  law  which 
is  virtually  equivalent  to  a  sabotage  measure.  It  is  directed  specifically  toward 
a  number  of  local  industries,  and  it  might  be  noted  that  Washington  is  the  only 
state  having  two  separate  laws  against  criminal  anarchy  and  syndicalism. 

Related  Offenses 

Almost  all  of  these  types  of  general  subversion  statutes  also  declare  it  to  be  a 
felony  to  join  any  organization  or  voluntarily  to  assemble  with  any  group  advo- 
cating, justifying,  or  teaching  subversive  doctrines.  A  number  of  laws  also 
prescribe  a  lighter  penalty,  usually  punishment  as  a  misdemeanor,  for  the  owner 
or  person  in  charge  of  a  building  knowingly  to  permit  it  to  be  used  for  furthering 
or  advocating  the  unlawful  overthrow  of  government.  Persons  who  assemble 
for  such  unlawful  purposes  whether  they  belong  to  the  subversive  organization 
or  espouse  its  doctrines,  likewise  are  declared  guilty  of  a  misdemeanor. 

In  most  states  having  laws  of  these  types  the  dissemination  of  the  forbidden 
doctrines  in  any  manner  is  a  felony.  In  North  Carolina  and  New  York,  however, 
the  editors  or  proprietors  of  books  or  other  printed  matter  are  specifically  made 
chargeable  for  wilful  publication  of  the  matter  contained  therein.  In  North 
Carolina  the  managers  or  other  officials  of  the  association  by  which  such  publica- 
tion is  issued  are  also  guilty  of  the  offense  if  knowingly  committed. 

In  addition  to  the  above,  several  states  require  subversive  organizations  or 
oath-bound  societies  to  register  with  the  state.  Registration  laws  have  been  en- 
acted in  some  of  the  states.  In  North  Carolina,  incidentally,  political  or  military 
organizations  are  absolutely  forbidden,  as  is  membership  in  such  groups.  South 
Carolina  also  has  an  espionage  law. 

Penalties  for  Breach  of  Suhversion  Laws 

Except  as  otherwise  noted,  violation  of  any  of  these  laws  against  subversive 
activities  is  declared  to  be  a  felony,  punishable  by  fine  or  imprisonment  in  the 
penitentiary,  or  both.  Offenses  considered  less  dangerous  to  the  state  are  u.sually 
declared  to  be  misdemeanors,  punishable  by  imprisonment  in  the  county  jail,  a 
smaller  fine,  or  both.  A  few  states  also  prescribe  additional  or  unusual  penalties 
for  persons  violating  statutes  against  subversive  activities. 


The  most  common  additional  penalty  specified  for  violation  of  subversion  laws- 
deals  with  the  employment  of  violators  by  the  state.  For  example,  in  Washington, 
no  person  convicted  of  criminal  anarchy  may  be  employed  by  the  state  or  any  de- 
partment or  subdivision  thereof  for  a  period  of  five  years  after  conviction.  Idi 
Tennessee  a  person  guilty  of  sedition  is  incapal)Ie  of  bearing  any  office  of  honor,, 
trust,  or  profit  in  the  state  government  for  three  years,  and  may  be  required  to 
give  sureties  for  good  behavior  for  as  long  as  the  court  may  require.  In  Illinois- 
the  compensation  of  state  employees  or  officers  is  withheld  for  sedition,  and  sucht 
persons  are  ineligible  for  state  civil  service  appointments.  In  several  other  states- 
conviction  of  a  person  for  sedition  will  bar  him  from  public  employment  or- 
public  office,  or  will  be  cause  for  his  dismissal. 

A  more  striking  penalty  is  that  found  in  Pennsylvania.  Persons  there  advocat- 
ing and  taking  part  in  a  movement  to  change  the  form  of  government,  not  in  ac- 
cord with  the  constitution,  are  ineligible  to  receive  public  assistance.  New  Jer- 
sey also  denies  subversive  individuals  the  right  to  obtain  a  court  order  establishr 
iiig  their  date  and  place  of  birth.  Alaska,  by  the  way,  disbars  attorneys  engaged, 
in  such  activities. 

RGSum6  of  General  Subversion  Laws 

As  previously  noted,  although  there  is  a  difference  in  the  terminology  used  in* 
the  various  state  laws  against  subversive  activities,  the  practical  effect  and; 
the  purpose  of  these  measures  would  be  very  similar.  They  are  intended  to  pro- 
hibit and  punish  acts  and  utterances  tending  toward  the  overthrow  of  the  Ameri- 
can form  of  government  by  force  or  violence,  or  other  unlawful  means,  or  its 
change  in  any  manner  not  provided  by  our  constitutions  and  laws.  Although- 
there  are  some  variances  in  the  extensiveness  of  the  activities  covered  by  these 
statutes,  such  differences  appear  not  to  be  of  importance,  and  there  is  apparently 
no  outstanding  examiile  in  any  particular  state  of  a  complete  measure  for  curb- 
ing seditious  activities.  No  statute  has  lieen  found  which  would  penalize  sub- 
versive activities  not  tending  toward  the  unlawful  overthrow  of  government^, 
with  the  exception  of  tlie  inclusion  in  some  general  sedition  statutes  of  a  prohibi- 
tion on  the  advocacy  of  violence  against  a  class  of  persons. 

In  any  attempt  to  draft  comprehensive  measures  to  cuili  su)>versive  activities^, 
the  Commission  of  course  must  weigh  its  proposals  a.uainst  constitutional  guar- 
antees of  free  speech,  freedom  of  the  press,  and  the  right  of  lawful  assemblage^ 


In  addition  to  the  general  laws  against  sul)versive  activities,  a  number  of 
states  have  subversion  measures  of  more  specific  application.  For  purposes  of; 
this  memorandum,  there  might  be  included  within  this  group  the  so-called  red- 
flag  statutes,  laws  against  subversive  political  parties  and  candidates  for  office 
and  loyalty-oath  laws  applying  to  teachers,  public  officers  and  employees,  and. 
others.  As  heretofore  stated,  a  number  of  states  also  have  laws  making  subver- 
sive activities  a  reason  for  discharge  of  state  employees,  or  prohibiting  certifica- 
tion of  such  persons  for  civil-service  appointments. 

Red  Flag  Laivs 

The  most  common  type  of  specific  legislation  designed  to  suppress  the  spreadi 
of  subversive  activities  are  the  red-fiag  laws,  found  in  most  of  the  States.  These 
measures  prohiltit  the  display  of  certain  flags  and  other  emblems  as  symbols  of 
the  advocacy  or  belief  in  revolution  or  radical  activities  antagonistic  to  the  Ameri- 
can form  of  government.     The  West  Virginia  statute  is  summarized  as  follows : 

"It  shall  be  unlawful  for  any  person  to  have  in  his  possession  or  to  display 
any  red  or  black  flag,  or  to  display  any  other  flag,  emblem,  device,  or  sigu  of  any 
natui'e  whatever,  indicating  sympathy  with  or  support  of  ideals,  institutions,  or 
forms  of  government,  hostile,  inimical  or  antagonistic  to  the  form  or  spirit  of 
the  Constitution,  laws,  ideals,  and  institutions  of  this  State  or  of  the  United 

The  statute,  however,  is  somewhat  broader  than  many  laws  of  this  type,  since 
it  declares  the  mere  possession  of  the  prohibited  emblem  to  be  unlawful.  Ordi- 
narily violations  of  these  laws  are  punished  by  fine  or  imprisonment,  or  a  com- 
bination of  both.  Some  states  also  have  separate  measures  a.gainst  the  display 
of  alien  fiags  from  public  luiildings,  and  prohibitions  against  the  wearing  of' 
foreign  uniforms.  Various  laws  effective  during  wartime  only  are  also  con-r- 
tained  in  the  statutes  in  a  number  of  states. 



Exclusion  From  Ballot 

Legislation  of  more  recent  ori.uiu  against  subversive  activities  is  directed  at 
political  parties  and  candidates  for  public  office  advocating:  doctrines  inimical  or 
hostile  to  the  American  form  of  government,  especially  communism.  The  Illinois 
provisions  are  perhaps  representative  of  measures  of  this  type: 

••*  *  *  no  political  organization  or  group  shall  be  qualified  as  a  political 
party  hereunder,  or  given  a  place  on  a  ballot,  which  organization  or  group  is 
associated,  directly  or  indirectly  with  Communist,  Fascist,  Nazi,  or  other  un- 
American  principles  and  engages  in  activities  or  propaganda  designed  to  teach, 
suliservience  to  the  political  principles  and  ideals  of  foreign  nations  or  the  over- 
throw by  violence  of  the  established  constitutional  form  of  government  of  the 
United  States  and  tlie  State  of  Illinois." 

A  few  of  the  states  got  at  this  problem  by  outlawing  certain  organizations, 
either  bv  name  or  bv  principles.  Some  go  farther,  and  in  addition  require  each 
new  pol'itical  party  "to  tile  an  affidavit  that  it  lacks  affiliation  with  any  foreign 
or  subversive  organization,  and  that  it  does  not  advocate  the  unlawful  overthrow 
of  the  government.  Other  states  attack  not  only  the  organization  but  the  candi- 
dates, prohibiting  all  candidates  having  subversive  principles  or  affiliations  from 
appearing  on  the  ballot. 

Loijaltt/  Oath  Statutes 

The  belief  in  the  general  susceptibility  of  youth  to  revolutionary  ideas,  and  the 
theory  that  they  might  be  disseminated  in  the  .schools  and  colleges  has  led  to  the 
enactment  of  teacher  loyalty  oath  laws,  in  a  numl^er  of  states.  These  statutes 
provide  generally  that  it  shall  be  unlawful  for  any  person  to  teach  in  an  educa- 
tional institution  unless  such  teacher  first  take  an  oath  to  support  and  defend 
the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  and  of  the  particular  state.  In  Florida 
and  South  Carolina,  however,  it  is  required  that  a  prospective  teacher  satisfy 
the  examiners  as  to  his  loyalty  to  the  Constitution,  though  apparently  no  oath  is 

A  variety  of  penalties  is  provided  for  breach  of  these  provisions.  Some  states, 
such  as  New  York,  merely  declare  teaching  without  subscribing  the  oath  to  be 
unlawful.  Others  invoke  their  perjury  laws  for  giving  false  information.  The 
usual  provision,  however,  is  that  a  teacher  failing  to  take  the  required  oath  is  to 
be  denied  employment.  Fine  or  imprisonment  is  provided  in  some  other  states 
for  persons  teaching  without  taking  the  prescribed  oath.  Provisions  are  also 
found  whereJjy  the  person  in  charge  of  an  institution  is  to  be  lined  for  permitting 
such  persons  to  teach,  and  prohibiting  the  payment  of  public  funds  to  a  teacher 
failing  to  take  the  required  oath. 

In  Vermont,  in  addition  to  the  law  prescriliing  the  loyalty  oath  for  teachers, 
there  is  a  measure  jirohibiting  their  engaging  in  propaganda  or  subversive  ac- 
tivities. In  New  York  there  is  a  separate  act  forbidding  the  use  of  text  books 
containing  .seditious  matter  in  the  public  schools. 

While  these  loyalty  oath  statutes  generally  are  directed  toward  school  teachers, 
in  S(mie  states  they  apply  also  to  public  officers  and  employees.  In  still  other 
states  regulatory  measures  of  one  form  or  another  apply  specifically  to  legislators 
(Arizona),  presidential  electors  (Georgia),  the  state  guard  (Louisiana),  and 
state  police  (Utah).  In  addition,  a  few  of  the  states  expressly  forbid  use  of 
school  property  or  facilities  for  subversive  activities. 

Table  of  State  Legislation 

[X  indicates  legislation  is  in  effect] 

See  footnote  at  end  of  table. 
62106 — 50 5 


laws  ' 

sion from 

ment to 

and  em- 








A  rkanvi<? 







C  olorad  0 











Table  of  State  legislation — Continued 
[X  indicates  legislation  is  in  effect] 


laws  1 

sion from 

ment to 

and  em- 




Idaho      .  -  .      -- 












Kentucky                 .     ..    


Louisiana.     ._ 


Maine                           ... 

Marvland  .    .  .. 






Michigan               ....     _._. 



Mississippi .. _ 



Montana  .      ....     _ 





Nevada                    . 


New  Hampshire 

New  Jersey .  . 





New  Mexico 

New  York 




North  Carolina           ...     .. 


North  Dakota          . 















Rhode  Island 

South  Carolina     . 


South  Dakota 
















West  Virginia 















I  Sedition,  criminal  anarchy,  or  criminal  syndicalism. 

Appendix  A — Federal  Statutes 

Treason  ({1790)  i8  U.  S.  C.  A.,  Sect.  1,  2). — Defined  as  levying  war  against 
U.  S.  or  adhering  to  their  enemies,  giving  them  aid  and  comfort  within  the 
U.  S.  or  elsewhere,  .while  owing  allegiance  to  the  U.  S.  Penalty,  death  or, 
at  the  discretion  of  the  court,  not  less  than  5  years  and  not  less  than  $10,000; 
incapable  of  holding  office  under  the  U.  S. 

Misprision  of  Treason  ( {1190)  IS  U.  S.  C.  A.,  Sect.  3).— Concealment  of  knowl- 
edge of  treason.     Penalty,  not  more  than  7  years  and  not  more  than  $1,000. 

Inciting  Rebellion  or  Insurrection  {(1862)  18  U.  S.  C.  A.,  Sect.  4). — Incite- 
ment, assisting  or  engaging  in  rebellion  or  insurrection  against  the  authority 
of  the  U.  S.  or  the  laws  thereof,  or  giving  aid  or  comfort  thereto.  Not  more  than 
10  years,  or  more  than  $10,000,  or  both,  and  incapable  of  holding  any  oflice  under 
the  U.  S.  Members  of  armed  forces  who  spread  disaffection  therein,  or  who  incite 
to  mutiny,  etc.,  are  punishable  by  death  under  Articles  of  War  No.  4,  34  U.  S. 
C.  A.,  Sect.  1200. 

Criminal  Conespondence  With  Foreign  Governments  {{1799)  18  U.  S.  G.  A., 
Sect.  5). — Prohibits  unauthorized  correspondence  or  intercourse,  verbal  or  in 
writing,  with  foreign  government  with  intent  to  influence  measures  or  conduct 
of  any  foreign  government  or  any  oflScer  or  agent  thereof,  in  relation  to  disputes 
or  controversies  with  the  U.  S.  Penalty,  up  to  3  years  and  $5,000. 

Seditious  Conspiracy  {{1861)  18  U.  S.  C.  A.,  Sect.  6). — Forbids  conspiracy 
by  two  or  more  persons  to  overthrow  or  destroy  by  force  the  government  of  the 


U.  S.,  or  to  levy  war  against  them,  or  to  oppose  by  force  the  authority  thereof, 
or  by  force  to  prevent,  hinder,  or  delay  the  execution  of  any  law  of  the  U.  S., 
or  by  force  to  seize  any  property  of  the  U.  S.  Penalty,  not  more  than  $5,000,  or 
not  more  than  6  years,  or  both. 

Rccruitinn  For  Service  Against  U.  S.  (  (1S61)  IS  U.  S.  C.  A.,  Sect.  7).— Prohibits 
recruiting  soldiers  or  sailors  with  U.  S.  to  engage  in  armed  hostility  against 
the  same,  or  opening  within  the  U.  S.  a  recruiting  station  for  the  purpose.  Pen- 
alt\-,  not  more  than  $1,000  and  not  more  than  5  years. 

Enlistinn  To  Serve  Aijainst  The  U.  8.  {(ISrA)  IS  U.  S.  G.  A.,  Sect.  S).— 
Every  person  enlisted  or  engaged  within  the  U.  S.  with  intent  to  serve  in  armed 
hostility  against  the  U.  S.  shall  be  fined  $100  and  imprisoned  not  more  than 
three  (3)  years. 

Undermining  Loiialty,  Discipline,  or  Morale  of  Armed  Forces  {(1940)  18 
U.  8.  C.  A.,  Sect.  9). — Unlawful  for  any  person,  with  intent  to  interfere  with, 
impair,  or  intluence  the  loyalty,  morale,  or  discipline  of  the  military  or  naval 
forces  of  the  U.  S. : 

(a)  To  advise  or  urge  insubordination,  disloyalty,  mutiny,  or  refusal 
of  duty  by  any  member  of  the  military  or  naval  forces  of  the  U.  S. 

(b)  To  distribute  any  written  or  printed  matter  or  advising  or  urging. 

(c)  Includes  all  branches  of  service,  even  merchant  vessels  commis- 
sioned in  the  Navy  or  in  the  service  of  the  Army  or  Navy,  including 
Master,  Officers  and  crew  of  such  vessels. 

Penalty,  up  to  $10,000,  or  10  years,  or  both,  and  ineligible  for  Federal  employ- 
ment for  ")  years. 

Advocating  Overthrow  of  Government  By  Force  {(WJfO)  IS  U.  8.  C.  A.,  Sect. 
10). — Unlawful  for  any  person: 

(a)  Knowingly  or  wilfully  to  advocate,  teach,  etc.,  the  necessity  or  desira- 
bility of  overthrowing  or  destroying  any  government  in  the  U.  S.  by  force  or 
violence,  or  by  tbe  assassination  of  any  officer  of  any  such  government. 

(b)  With  intent  to  cause  the  overthrow  or  destruction  of  any  government 
in  the  U.  S.,  to  print,  distribute,  etc.,  any  written  or  printed  matter  so 

(c)  To  organize  or  help  to  organize,  or  to  become  a  member  of  any  society 
or  group  so  advocating. 

"Government  in  the  U.  S."  defined  to  include  states  and  their  political  sub- 
divisions. Penalty,  up  to  10  years  or  $10,000,  or  both,  and  ineligible  for  Federal 
employment  for  5  years. 

Attempting  or  Conspiring  to  Commit  Prohibited  Acts  {(1940)  IS  U.  8.  C.  A., 
Sect.  11). — Unlawful  for  any  person  to  attempt  or  to  conspire  to  commit  any  of 
the  acts  prohibited  by  the  two  preceding  sections  (9  and  10).  Penalty,  up  to  10 
years,  or  $10,000,  or  both,  and  ineligible  for  Federal  employment  for  5  years. 

Subversive  Organizations  Registration  Act  ({1940)18  U.  S.  C.  A.,  Sects. 
14-17). — Defines  subversive  organizations  (Id.,  Sect.  14).  Requires  subversive 
organizations  to  register,  exempts  certain  organizations  and  sets  forth  require- 
ments of  registration  statement  (Id.,  Sect.  15).  Authorizes  Attorney  General  to 
make,  amend,  and  rescind  rules  and  regulations  necessary  to  carry  out  the  fore- 
going (Id.,  Sect.  16).  Penalty,  up  to  $10,000  or  5  years,  or  both.  For  making 
false  statements,  up  to  $2,000  or  5  years,  or  both. 

Espionage  Act  ( (1911)  (in  effect  in  war  only)  50  U.  S.  G.  A.,  Sects.  31-42).— 
Unlawfully  obtaining  or  permitting  to  be  obtained  information  regarding  national 
defense,  unlawfully  disclosing  information  affecting  national  defense,  commit- 
ting .seditious  or  disloyal  acts  or  words  in  time  of  war,  conspiring  to  violate  fore- 
going sections,  harboring  or  concealing  violators  of  law.  Punishment  ranges 
from  fines  up  to  $10,000  and  imprisonment  up  to  10,  20,  or  30  years,  and  death. 

Interference  With  The  Draft  (Selective  Service  Act,  Sect.  11  (1940),  50  U.  8. 
C.  A.,  Sect.  311). — Interfering  with  the  draft  in  various  enumerated  ways,  fail- 
ing to  register  or  report  for  service,  or  conspiring  to  do  such  prohibited  things ; 
Subject  to  fine  of  not  more  than  $10,000,  or  to  imprisonment  up  to  5  years,  or 

Enticing  Desertion  From  Armed  Forces  ( (1877)  18  U.  S.  G.  A.,  Sects.  94,  95.)  — 
Applies  to  anyone  enticing  or  attempting  to  entice  desertion  by  any  member  of 
the  armed  forces,  or  harboring,  concealing  or  refusing  to  .surrender  a  deserter. 
Penalty,  up  to  3  years  and  not  more  than  .$2,000.  Penalties  up  to  $50  and  3 
donths,  or  both,  for  enticing  workmen  from  arsenals  or  armories. 


Damagimi  Fortiflcofions  and  Harhnr  Defenses  ((1898)  18  U.  8.  C.  A.,  8ect. 
96). — Iiijuriug  fortifications,  harbor-defense  system,  etc.,  or  wilfully  violating 
any  order  or  regulation  of  the  President  governing  persons  or  vessels  within  de- 
fense sea  areas.  Subject  to  fine  of  not  more  than  $5,0<X),  or  imprisonment  up  to 
5  years,  or  both. 

Trespassing  Upon  Military  Reservations,  etc.  ((1909)  18  U.  8.  C.A.,  Sect. 
97). — Entering  military  reservations,  post,  fort,  or  arsenal  for  any  purpose  pro- 
hilnted  by  law  or  regulation,  or  returning  thereto  after  once  being  ejected :  Pun- 
ishable up  to  $r)()0  or  tj  months,  or  both. 

Accessories  To  Crime  ((llOJ,)  18  V.  8.  C.  A..  8cct.  5.50 ) .—Whoever  directly 
commits  any  offense  defined  in  any  law  of  the  U.  S..  or  aids,  abets,  counsels, 
commands,  induces,  or  procures  its  commission,  is  a  principal. 

Conspiracy  ( (1861)  18  U.  8.  C.  A.,  Sect.  88). — Conspiracy  by  2  or  more  persons 
to  commit  any  offense  against  the  U.  S.  and  any  overt  act  by  any  one  of  tliem  to 
effect  the  object  of  the  conspiracy  subjects  each  to  penalties  up  to  .$10,000  or  2 
years,  or  both. 

Threats  Against  The  President  ((1917)  IS  U.  8.  C.  A.,  Sect.  8.9 )  .—Wilful 
threats  by  mail  or  otherwise  to  kill  or  harm  the  President  of  the  U.  S.  Punish- 
able up  to  5  years,  or  $1,0C0.  or  both. 

Acting  As  Foreign  Governmental  Agent  Without  Notice  To  The  Secretary  Of 
State  ((1917)  22  U.  S.  C.  A.,  Sect.  233). — Anyone,  other  than  a  diplomatic  or 
consular  ( fficer  or  attache  who  acts  in  the  U.  S.  as  an  agent  of  a  foreign  govern- 
ment without  prior  notification  to  the  Secretary  of  State  is  subject  to  $."),000,  or 
T)  years,  or  both. 

Deportation  of  Alien  Radicals  ( (1920)  8  U.  8.  C.  A.,  Sect.  137).— Any  alien  who, 
at  any  time,  shall  be  or  shall  have  been  a  member  of  any  one  of  the  following 
classes,  shall  be  excluded  from  admission  into  the  U.  S. : 

(a)  Anarchists. 

(b)  Opposers  of  organized  government. 

(c)  Advocates  of  violent  overthrow  of  government,   assault  on  govern- 
ment officers,  or  destruction  of  propt^rty. 

(d)  Publishers,  etc.,  of  such  doctrines. 

(e)  Affiiiates  of  such  publishors,  etc. 

Provision  for  deportation  of  such  aliens  already  within  the  U.  S.  Penalty,  for 
unlawful  return  after  deportation — up  to  5  years,  and  deportation  again  fol- 
lowing iniprisonment. 

XatiiraIi.:ation  Reqiiironoits  (  (1906)  8  U.  S.  C.  A..  Sect.  735). — Before  being 
naturalized,  petitioner  must  take  oath  in  open  court  to  support  Constitution  of 
the  LI.  S.  and  to  renounce  all  allegiance  to  any  foreign  sovereignty,  etc.  Py  Sect. 
705  of  Title  8,  naturalization  is  denied  to  any  person  who  advocates  overthrow 
of  government,  etc.     (Provisions  almost  identical  to  Deportation  Act,  supra.) 

MaiVniii  Ohscene  or  Indecent  Matter  (  [1909)  18  U.  8.  C.  A..  Sect.  .i.5-i ) .— Pro- 
hibiis,  under  penalties  up  to  5  years  and  $1,000,  the  mailing  of  any  ob.-'cene  or 
indecent  matter.  The  term  "indecent"  is  expressly  defined  to  include  matter 
of  a  cliaracter  tending  to  incite  arson,  murder,  or  assassination. 

Mailing  Matter  Which  Violates  Espionage  Act.  etc.  ((1917)  18  U.  S.  C.  A., 
Sects.  3-'i3.  S'l-'f). — Matter  is  declared  to  I)e  nonmailable  which  violates  Espionage 
Act.  or  which  contains  anytliin'.v  advocating  or  urging  treason,  insurrection,  or 
forcib'e  resistance  to  any  law  of  the  U.  S. 

Importation  of  Subversive  Literature  ((1913)  19  U.  8.  C.  A.,  Sect.  1305).— 
Prohibits  all  persons  from  importing  into  the  U.  S.  any  printed  matter  advocat- 
ing treason  or  insurrection  against  the  U.  S.,  or  forcible  resistance  to  any  law 
thereof.  Provision  for  confiscation  and  severe  penalties  against  any  government 
ot!icer  or  employee  aiding  in  such  unlawful  importation. 

Affidavits  by  Union  Officials  (  (7.97/7)  80th  Congress,  1st  Ses-nrm.  Ch.  120,  P.  L. 
101). — This  act,  entitled  the  ''Labor  Management  Relations  Act,  1947,"  but  more 
commonly  known  as  the  "Taft-Hartley  Law,"  among  other  things  requires  atfi- 
davlts  of  mron  officials  that  they  are  not  members  of  the  Communist  party. 

Appropriation  Acts. — Mostly  all,  including  the  Hatch  Act  (Sect.  9-A),  forbid 
us '   of   funds    in    payment    for    services,    etc.    to   communists    and    the    like. 

False  Statements  or  Entries  ((19J,8)  18  U.  8.  C.  A.,  Sect.  1001).— This  is  a 
recent  re-enactment  of  another  statute  which  heretofore  combined  both  fraud 
and  false  statements.  The  provisions  were  separated  in  the  revision  of  the 
criminal  cod;>  and  this  statute  is  the  one  under  which  false  statements  in  loyalty 
tests  will  be  punished. 


Appendix  B — State  Statutes   (By  States) 


Criminal  Anarchy  {Code  19)0.  Title  I'l.  ncvta.  19-22). — It  is  a  felony  to  conspire, 
consort  or  collude  with,  or  induce,  aid,  advise,  etc.,  in  any  manner,  any  person  to 
subvert,  overturn,  destroy  or  chansie  the  form  of  government  of  the  state  or  U. 
S.  by  force  or  violence,  or  other  than  by  orderly  process  of  law.  Penalties  in- 
clude loss  of  state  citizenship.  Organizations  so  advocating  are  declared  illegal 
and  denied  the  riglits  of  political  party,  subject  to  dissolution  or  in.iunction 
against  carrying  on  such  function,  and  persons  participating  in  such  organization 
or  meeting,  so  advocating  are  guilty  of  felony. 

Sedition  (Session  Laws  lOZ/J,  Chap.  O-'/O). — The  advocacy  in  any  manner  of 
the  doctrine  that  organized  government  should  be  overthrown  by  force  or  violence, 
or  by  assatisination  of  the  executive  head  or  of  the  executive  officials  of  govern- 
ment, or  any  unlawful  means,  or  the  .iustif.cation  of  .such  doctrine,  is  a  felony — 
also  to  become  an  organizer  or  a  member  of  a  group  or  assembly  advocating  such. 


Regulation  of  Teachers  (Code  1939,  Sert.  .J-}-7002).— Loyalty  oath  statute. 
Rcf/iilation  of  LeijiHlators  (5th  Spec.  Sess.  194S,  House  Concurrent  Res.  .}). — 
Loyalty  oath  statute. 


Sedition  ((19'/3)  Session  Laics,  Mar.  15.  pp.  -J6J-.',68,  No.  2.3/).— Advocating  or 
encouraging  violence,  sabotage  or  disloyalty  punishable  as  a  felony.  Racial  dis- 
orders, prejudices,  or  hatreds  are  included. 

Lictiiil(iti(m.  of  State  Emploiiccs  {19',.^)  Id.,  Mar.  IS,  pp.  5S1-532,  No.  2//,9).— Un- 
lawful for  any  person  employed  in  any  capacity  by  the  State  of  Aikansas  to  have 
membership  in  any  party  or  organization  which  advocates  the  overthrow  of  cur 
constitutional  form  of  government.  Punishable  as  a  misdemeanor,  subject  to 
fine  of  not  less  than  .$50  or  more  than  $250.  Persons  convicted  shall  be  removed 
by  the  Governor  and  thereafter  rendered  ineligible  to  hold  any  office  or  employ- 
ment in  the  State. 

Criminal  Anarchy  ((IO4I),  Id.,  Mar.  26,  pp.  75J,-755,  Xo.  2,02).— This  statute 
is,  in  effect,  a  combination  of  provisions  both  against  sedition  and  anarchy.  It 
outlaws  the  advocacy  verlially  or  in  writing  of  the  overthrow  of  government  by 
force  or  violence,  or  by  the  assassination  of  any  government  official.  It  further 
prohibits  organization  of  or  memliership  in  any  such  organization.     Penalties: 

(a)  Up  to  10  years  or  $10,000,  or  both. 

(b)  Ineligible  for  employment  by  State  for  5  years. 

(c)  Further  provides,  somewhat  aml)iguously,  that  no  member  of  a  nazi, 
fascist,  or  communist  society,  or  affiliated  group,  shall  be  eligible  for  em- 
ployment by  the  State. 

E.Tchision  From  Ballot  ((19',1)  1<L.  Mar.  26,  pp.  155-757,  Xo.  2PJ )  .—Directed 
specifically  against  the  communist  party  and  the  commtinist  international,  but 
designed  to  cover  any  foreign  or  subversive  organization  advocating  overthrow 
of  government.  This  statute,  similar  to  those  in  some  of  the  other  states,  provides 
tl!at  affidavits  must  l)e  filed  by  all  paities  with  the  Secretary  of  State,  who  is 
empowered  to  investigate  and  l)ar  any  subversive  party  from  the  ballot.  Pun- 
ishable by  $in0  to  $1,000  fine  and  not  more  than  6  months'  imprisonment.  (See  of  Field  v.  Hall.  201  Ark.  77,  143  S.  W.  (2d)  5(i7,  wherein  constitutionality 
of  this  act  was  upheld  and  the  court,  in  mandanuis  proceedings,  refused  to 
disturb  the  findings  of  the  Secretary  of  State.) 

Conspiracy  To  Orerthrotr  Government  (19.37  Code,  Sect.  3571). — Unlawful  to 
con.spire  to  usurp  or  overthrow  present  form  of  government  or  to  obstruct 


Reyulation  of  State  Employees  ( (19.',5)  Session  Laics,  Apr.  27,  p.  53S,  c. 
123). — Forbids  employment  by  any  state  agency  or  court  of  any  person  who 
either  directly  or  indii-ectly  carries  on,  advocates,  teaches,  justifies,  aids,  or 
abets  a  program  of  sabotage,  force  and  violence,  sedition  or  treason  against  the 
Government  of  the  U.  S.  or  of  California.  Any  such  person,  including  teachers 
who  already  are  so  employed,  shall  be  discharged  and  such  person  shall  not  be 


compensated  from  the  state  treasury.  Provision  further  is  made  (pp.  567-8) 
for  disciplinary  action  against  any  employee  who  is  or  claims  to  be  a  citizen  of 
a  country  with  which  the  U.  S.  is  at  war,  or  a  dual  citizen  of  U.  S.  and  of  any 
such  country,  or  who  has  taken  an  oath  of  or  pledged  allegiance  to  any  such 
country,  or  who  commits  any  act  of  disloyalty  to  the  U.  S.  or  its  flag,  or  obstructs 
the  war  effort  or  defense  preparations  of  the  U.  S. 

ReyulaUon  of  Schools  ((WJ,5)  July  10,  pi).  2301-2,  c.  1213).— Use  of  scliool 
property  forbidden  by  any  individual,  society,  group,  or  organization  which  ad- 
vocates, or  has  as  one  of  its  objects,  the  overthrow  of  the  government  of  the  U.  S. 
or  of  the  state,  by  force,  violence,  or  other  unlawful  means.  Any  person  who  is 
affiliated  with  any  siich  oi'ganization  is  characterized  as  a  sul»versive  element. 
Governing  Board  shall  determine  who  is  a  subversive  element  and  is  empowered 
to  demand  affidavits  of  facts.    Perjury  statutes  are  made  appUcahle  thereto. 

Regulation  of  Public  Officers  {(19!,1)  Id.,  July  19,  pp.  3228-9  c.  1281).— AMs 
a  section  to  the  Political  Code,  rendering  supporters  of  foreign  governments,  and 
the  like,  ineligible  to  hold  public  office.  Designed  to  curb  oth  column  and  permits 
anyone  to  purge  himself  of  a  foreign  oath  by  petitioning  Court  and  renouncing 
such  allegiance. 

Criminal  Syndicalism  {{1919)  Gen.  Laws,  Deering,  1937,  Act  8428). — Anyone 
who  in  any  manner  by  words,  publications,  or  conduct,  advocates,  aids,  etc.,  or 
justifies  the  doctrine  advocating  commission  of  crime,  sabotage  or  unlawful  acts 
of  force  and  violence  or  terrorism  as  a  means  of  accomplishing  a  change  in  indus- 
trial ownei'ship  or  control  or  political  change  is  guilty  of  felony — also  organizing 
or  becoming  a  member  of  a  group  or  assembly  advocating  such. 

Exclusion  From  Ballot  {{19J,0)  Elections'  Code,  Sects.  25Jj0.3-Jf).  Similar  to 
Arkansas  statute.  Applies  to  any  part.v  using  the  word  "communist"  in  its 
name  or  which  is  affiliated  with  the  communist  party  of  the  U.  S. 

Subversive  Organizations  Registration-  Act  {{19^1)  Session  Laws,  April  25, 
pp.  1236-1240,  c.  183). — Requires  registration  with  and  detailed  information  to 
the  Secretary  of  State  by  every  corporation,  association,  society,  camp,  group, 
bund,  political  party,  assembly,  and  every  other  body  of  two  or  more  persons  or 
members  which  directly  or  indirectly  advocate  overthrow  of  government. 
Penalty,  fine  of  $1,000— $10,000  against  the  organization;  $500— $5,000  and  6 
months  to  5  years  for  officers,  directors,  trustees,  etc. ;  $10-— $1,000  and  10  days 
to  one  year  for  knowingly  becoming  or  remaining  a  member  of  a  subversive 

Fact  Finding  Committee  {19^1-1948) . — Commission  established  to  investigate 
and  report  on  subversive  activities. 


Sedition  and  Criminal  Anarchy  ( {1919)  Stat.  Ann.,  1935,  c.  J,8,  Sects.  15-29). — 
Advocating  overthrow  of  government  of  U.  S.  or  of  Colorado  defined  as  anarchy 
and  sedition  and  made  a  felony ;  likewise,  advocating  destruction  of  life  or 
property  or  personal  injury  either  as  a  general  principle  or  in  particular  in- 
stances, as  a  means  of  affecting  governmental,  industrial,  social,  or  economic 
conditions ;  defining  and  making  unlawful  anarchistic  and  seditious  associations 
and  societies;  serving  as  an  officer  or  representative  thereof;  distributing  any 
pamphlets  or  literature  advocating  any  of  the  foi'egoing;  and  conspiring  to 
do  any  of  these  things.    Penalty :  Not  exceeding  20  years,  or  $10,000,  or  both. 

Regulation  of  Teachers  {Stat.  Ann.,  1935,  c.  I46,  Sects.  235-237) .—Loyalty 
oath  statute. 


Incitement  To  Specific  Acts  of  Violence  {{1923)  Gen.  Stat.  1930,  Sec.  6072).— 
Advocating  damage  to  public  or  private  property  or  assault  upon  Army.  National 
Guard,  or  police  force,  or  injury  to  any  class  or  bodv  of  persons.  Penalty  up  to 
10  years  or  $5,000. 

Sedition  {{1939)  Id.,  Sec.  &039).— It  is  unlawful  to  speak,  write,  distribute, 
etc.,  any  disloyal,  scurrilous  or  abusive  matter,  concerning  the  form  of  U.  S. 
government,  its  military  forces,  flag  or  uniforms,  or  any  matter  intended  to  bring 
them  into  disrepute,  or  which  creates  or  fosters  opposition  to  organized  govern- 
ment— also  to  utter  in  an  assemblage  any  doctrine  or  propaganda  intended  to 
injure  U.  S.  or  state  government.    Penalty,  up  to  20  years,  $10,000,  or  both. 



Sedition  ((1931)  Rev.  Code,  1935,  Seet.  5156).— Defined  as  any  verbal  or  writ- 
ten or  printed  utterance  wliich  proximately  causes  any  violence  or  demonstra- 
tion of  violence  against  either  the  U.  S.  or  Delaware,  and  any  part  in  organizing 
or  becoming  or  remaining  a  memlier  of  any  organization  which  advocates  such 
purpose.  Punishable  by  tine  of  $100  to  $10,000  and  imprisonment  not  exceeding 
20  vears  ;  either  or  both. 

Ejclusion  From  Ballot  {(1935)  Id.,  Sect.  1810).— ISio  political  party  shall  be 
recognized  or  given  a  place  on  the  ballot  which  advocates  the  overthrow  by  force 
or  violence,  or  which  advocates  or  carries  on  a  program  of  sedition  or  of  treason 
by  radio,  speech,  or  press,  of  our  local,  state,  or  national  government.  Affidavit 
required  of  all  new  parties. 


Incitement  To  Specific  Acts  of  Violence  ( (1866)  Comp.  Gen.  Laws,  Sect.  7133).— 
Prohibits  incitement  of  insurrection  or  treason,  or  attempt  thereat  by  means  of 
verbal  or  written  utterance  or  other  means. 

Criminal  Anarchy  ( (iS^i)  Session  Laws,  Apr.  22,  pp.  59-60,  c.  20216).— Crim- 
inal anarchy,  communism,  naziism,  and  fascism  prohibited,  defined,  and  made  a 
felony,  subject  to  severe  punishment.  Statute  further  makes  it  unlawful  for  any 
owner,  agent,  etc.,  of  any  building  knowingly  to  allow  communist  meetings  therein. 

Regulation  of  Teachers  {Stats.,  Sect.  231.18). — Loyalty  oath  statute. 


Inchtement  To  Specific  Acts  of  Violence  {(1866-72)  Code  Ann.  1936,  Sects. 
26.901-904). — Similar  to  Florida's  statute.     Enacted  during  Civil  War. 

Re<julation  of  Teachers  (Session  Laws  1935,  Res.  5^). — Loyalty  oath  statute. 

Regulation  of  Presidential  Electors  (Act  approved  Oct.  2, 1948). — Loyalty  oath 


Criminal  Sijndicalism  {{1917)  Code  Ann.  1932,  Sects.  i7.iJW-4).— Defined  as 
the  doctrine  wliich  wilfully  and  maliciously  advocates  crime,  sabotage,  violence, 
or  unlawful  methods  of  terrorism  as  a  means  of  accomplishing  industrial  or  po- 
litical reform.  Criminal  syndicalism  applied  to  certain  specific  acts  and  made 
punishable  as  a  felony  and  by  imprisonment  for  not  more  than  10  years ;  or  by 
fine  of  not  more  than  $5,000,  or  both.  "Criminal  syndicalist  assembly"  defined 
and  participants  made  subject  to  similar  penalties.  Also,  the  owner,  agent  or 
caretaker  of  any  place,  building  or  room  iiermitting  such  unlawful  assemblage 
made  subject  to  imprisonment  for  not  more  than  one  (1)  year,  or  fine  up  to 
$500,  or  both. 


Regulation  of  State  Employees  { (19^5  Session  Laws,  July  17,  p.  530,  Sect.  6). — 
Members  of  communist,  nazi,  and  fascist  organizations  barred  from  State  Civil 

Exclusion  From  Ballot  { {19J,1)  amended  1943,  Vol.  2,  May  11,  pp.  99,  I4I,  Sects. 
7-2,  10-2;  Rev.  Stat.,  1947,  ch.  46,  sees.  7-2,  8-2,  10-2).— Bar  a  Communist  Party 
from  ballot.  Similar  to  laws  enacted  in  other  states.  Related  statutes  dis- 
qualify the  Communist  Party  from  making  nominations  for  public  office  (111. 
1941,  vol.  1,  p.  604)  and  from  qualifying  under  the  primary  election  law  (111.,  1941, 
vol.  1,  July  1,  p.  607). 

Incitement  To  Specific  Acts  of  Violence  { (1861) Rev.  Stat.,  State  Bar  Ass'n 
ed.,  1939,  c.  134,  Sects.  10-11). — Applies  to  riot,  rebellion,  and  insurrection. 

Sedition  ( (1919)  Id.,  c.  38,  Sects.  558-560,  567, ) .—Unlawful  to  advocate  orally 
or  in  writing  the  reformation  or  overthrow  of  representative  form  of  state  or 
U.  S.  government  by  violence  or  other  unlawful  means  or  to  distribute  material 
advocating  such — also  membership  in,  or  giving  aid  to,  or  knowingly  to  attend 
meeting  of,  group  so  advocating. 

Regulation  of  Schools  (Rev.  Stat.  1947,  c.  I44.  Sect.  4S.8).— Use  of  University  of 
Illinois  facilities  withheld  from  subversive  organizations. 

Compensation  of  State  Employees  and  Officers  Withheld  for  Sedition  (Rev. 
Stat.  1947,  G.  127,  Sect.  i66a )  .—Self-explanatory, 



Exclusion  From  Ballot  ((1945),  Session  Latos,  Mar.  6,  pp.  766-767,  ch.  208, 
Sect.  117). — Because  this  is  a  model  statute  and  is  deemed  of  considerable  im- 
portance to  the  Commission,  it  is  quoted  herewitli,  as  follows  : 

"No  political  party  or  organization  shall  be  recognized  and  given  a  place  on 
or  have  the  names  of  its  candidates  printed  on  the  ballot  used  at  any  election 
which  advocates  the  overthrow  by  force  or  violence  of  the  local,  state,  or  national 
government,  or  which  advocates,  or  carries  on,  a  program  of  sedition  or  of  trea- 
son, and  which  is  afliliated  or  cooperates  with  or  has  any  relation  with  any  foreign 
government,  or  any  political  party  or  group  of  individuals  of  any  foreign  govern- 
ment. Any  political  party  or  organization  which  is  in  existence  at  the  time  of 
passage  of  this  act,  or  which  shall  have  had  a  ticket  on  the  ballot  one  (1)  or 
more  times  prior  to  any  election,  and  which  does  not  advocate  any  of  the  doc- 
trines the  advocacy  of  which  is  prohibited  by  this  act,  shall  insert  a  plank  in  its 
platform  that  it  (^oes  not  advocate  any  of  the  doctrines  prohibited  by  this  act. 
No  existing  or  newly  organized  political  party  or  organization  shall  be  permitted 
on  or  to  have  the  names  of  its  candidates  printed  on  the  ballot  used  at  any  elec- 
tion until  it  has  filed  an  affidavit,  by  its  officers,  under  oath,  that  it  does  not 
advocate  the  overthrow  of  local,  state,  or  national  government  liy  force  or  vio- 
lence, and  tliat  it  is  not  affiliated  with  and  does  not  cooperate  with  nor  has  any 
relation  with  any  foreign  government,  or  any  political  party,  organization,  or 
group  of  individuals  of  any  foreign  government.  The  affidavit  herein  ]n-ovided 
for  shall  be  filed  with  the  state  election  board  or  the  county  election  board  having 
ciiarge  of  the  printing  of  the  ballot  on  which  such  ticket  is  to  appear.  The 
election  board  with  which  such  affidavit  is  filed  shall  make,  or  cause  to  be  made, 
such  investigation  as  it  may  deem  necessary  to  determine  the  character  and 
nature  of  the  political  doctrines  of  such  existing  or  proposed  new  party  and 
the  expense  paid  by  the  state  treasury  out  of  funds  not  otherwise  appropriated, 
provided  the  amount  of  such  appropriation  shall  not  exceed  five  hundred  dollars 
(."{^oOO)  ;  and  the  expense  of  the  investigation  by  the  county  election  board  shall 
be  paid  out  of  the  funds  in  the  treasury  not  otherwise  appropriated,  provided 
the  amount  of  such  appropriation  shall  not  exceed  three  hundred  dollars  ($300)  ; 
and  if  the  board  is  of  the  opinion  that  such  existing  or  proposed  new  party  advo- 
cates doctrines  which  are  in  violation  of  the  provisions  of  this  act,  or  that  any 
of  the  statements  in  said  affidavit  are  false,  the  board  shall  not  permit  such 
ticket  or  candidates  on  the  ballot." 

Sedition  ({IDIH)  nnriis  Stat.  Ann..  J9S3,  Sects.  10.-1301-3).— Unlawful  to 
advocate,  incite,  publish,  etc.,  the  overthrow  of  government  of  state  or  U.  S.  by 
force,  or  by  physical  injury  to  personal  property,  or  by  general  cessation  of 
industry.     Penalty  up  to  $5,000,  five  (5)  years,  or  both. 

Retmlation  of  Teachers  {Stat.  Ann.  1933,  Sects.  28-5112  to  28-5114) .—Loyalty 
oath  statute. 

Ref/ulation  of  Public  Officers  {Stat.  Ann.  1933,  Sect.  49-303) .-Seditious  per- 
sons not  to  hold  public  office. 


Sedition  {{1917)  Code,  1939,  Sect.  12900). — Persons  inciting  or  attempting  to 
incite  insurrection  or  sedition  among  a  portion  or  class  of  the  popidation  to  be 
punished.  Any  person  who  by  speech,  writing,  or  any  means  shall  advocate 
subversit)n  and  destruction  by  force  of  government  of  state  or  U.  S.  or  attempts  to 
encourage  opposition  to  such  government  is  guilty  of  misdemeanor- — also  member- 
ship in  such  organization. 

Criminal  Syndicalism  {(1919)  1946,  Sects.  689.4  to  689.14).— Advocacy  in 
any  manner  by  speech,  writing,  etc.,  of  doctrine  which  advocates  crime,  sabotage, 
violence  or  other  unlawfiU  methods  of  terrorism  as  a  means  of  accomplishing 
industrial  or  political  reform  is  felony.  Includes  justifying  such  doctrine  or 
organizing  or  assembling  with  groups  so  advocating. 


Exclusion  From  Ballot  { {1941)  Session  Laws,  Apr.  7,  pp.  336-7,  c.  231).— Bars 
communist  party  specifically  by  name,  but  also  applies  to  other  subversive 
parties.    Similar  to  statutes  of  other  states. 

Criminal  Siindicalism  {{1920)  Gen.  Stat.  1935,  Sects.  21.301-4).— Defined  as 
"the  doctrine  which  advocates  crime,  physical  violence,  arson,  destruction  of 
property,  sabotage,  or  other  unlawful  acts  or  methods,  as  a  means  of  accomplish- 


'iriir  or  effecting.'  industrial  or  poltical  eiuls,  or  as  a  means  of  effecting  industrial 
•or  political  revolutiou,  or  for  profit."  (The  italicized  words  do  not  appear  in 
•other  statutes.)  Applied  to  specific  acts  and  made  punishable  by  1-10  years 
and  line  of  not  more  than  $1,000,  either  or  both.  I'ruvision  against  use  of 
premises  for  such  unlawful  purposes — $100-$;jOO  ;  60  days-1  year,  or  both. 

Scilition  [Gen.  Stat.  11)35,  Sect.  2 1-.,'^ J). —Applies  to  joining  revolutionary 


Criminal  Sjffidicalistn    ((1920)    Baldxoin's  Rev.  Stat.  1936,  Sect.  ^32.020).— 

It  is  an  offense  for  any  person  to  connuit,  aid  or  counsel  any  crime,  physical 

-violence,  destruction  of  property,  intimidation,  etc.,  or  other  unlawful  acts  or 

methods  to  accomplish  any  political  end  or  to  bring  about  political  revolution. 

Penaltv  up  to  21  years,  $10,000,  or  both. 

Sedi'tion  {(1920)  Id.,  Sect.  432.030).— It  is  a  felony  to  advocate  or  suggest 
in  any  manner  any  pul)lic  disorder  or  resistance  to,  or  change  or  modification  of, 
the  government,  constitution  or  laws  of  U.  S.  or  state  by  force  or  other  unlawful 
means.  It  is  a  felony  to  teach  or  publish  any  doctrine,  advocating,  etc.,  crimi- 
•nal  syndicalism  or  sedition,  or  to  organize  or  lie  member  of  organization  advocat- 
ing such.     Penalty,  up  to  21  years,  $10,000,  or  both. 

Conspriaci/  to  Commit  Specific  Acts  of  Violence  {(19-'/7)  Session  Laws). — 
-Applies  to  intimidation  or  injury  of  individuals  and  damage  to  property.  Ap- 
plied in  labor  disputes. 


Regulation  of  State  Guard  {{19.'i2)  Session-  Lairs,  Julii  2.  pp.  55-5(i,  No.  5). — 
IMembers  of  the  State  Guard  required  to  take  oath  that  they  do  not  belong  to 
rsubversive  organization.  Sedition  within  the  State  Guard  punishable  by  Court 

Incitement  to  Specific  Acts  of  Violence  (Crim..  Code  1942,  Art.  113,  Sect.  740- 
115). — Prohibits  incitement  of  insurrection  or  sedition  among  any  portion  or 
•class  of  the  population,  or  attempt  by  writing,  speaking,  or  any  means  to  do  so. 

Note. — Louisiana  had  a  regular  statute  on  sedition  which  was  enacted  in  1917, 
Tint  repealed  in  1942.  In  1942  the  State  also  enacted  a  statute  making  it  un- 
lawful to  teach  disloyalty  or  to  urge  refusal  to  honor  the  governments  and 
flags  of  the  U.  S.  and  of  Louisiana.  This,  however,  was  a  temporary  measure 
Avhich  was  designed  to  expire  automatically  at  the  end  of  the  war. 


Nothing  of  interest  found. 


Incitement  To  Specific  Acts  of  Violence  ( (1862)  Code,  Art.  27,  Sect.  60S).— This 
IS  a  very  old  statute  applying  to  treason  against  the  state.  It  prohibits  secret 
■or  public  meetings,  or  secret  clubs  to  encourage  secession  of  Maryland  from  the 
U.  S.  It  is  cited  only  because  of  its  historical  interest  and  because  it  appears 
still  to  be  on  the  statute  books. 

Commission  on  Suttrersive  Activities  (19.'i8). — Senate  .Joint  Resolution  No.  2 
■established  this  Commission  as  a  temporary  commission  for  the  sole  purpose  of 
making  this  report,  and  requires  foruuilation  and  submission  of  legislative  pro- 
gram to  1949  Legislature. 

Regulation  of  State  Employers  and  Public  Officers  ((Consiitutional  Amend- 
ment) Acts  1947,  c.  721). — Approved  by  electorate,  November  2,  1948.  "No  per- 
son who  is  a  member  of  an  organization  that  advocates  the  overthrow  of  the 
■Government  of  the  United  States  or  of  the  State  of  Maryland  through  force  or 
violence  sliall  be  eligil)le  to  hold  any  office,  be  it  elective  or  appointive,  or  any 
other  position  of  profit  or  trust  in  the  Government  of  or  in  the  administration  of 
the  of  this  State  or  of  any  county,  municipality  or  other  political  sub- 
division of  this  State."  Note,  however,  that  it  applies  to  members  only,  not  to 
other  subversive  individuals. 


Criminal  Anarchy  ( (1919)  Laics,  1913,  eh.  264,  ^^ect.  11).— It  is  a  felony  to  ad- 
vocate, advise,  counsel,  etc.,  in  any  manner  the  assault  on  a  public  official,  killing 
■of  any  person,  unlawful  destruction  of  property,  or  overthrow  by  force  or  violence 


of  government  of  state.  Persons  convicted  of  violation  of  this  section  not  to  per- 
form duties  of  teacher  or  administrator  in  public  or  private  educational  institu- 
tion, and  such  performance  can  be  restrained  by  court.  Further  penalty  up  to 
$1,000,  3  years,  or  both. 

Regulation  of  Teachers  (Sessi07i  Laws  1948,  ch.  160). — Loyalty  oath  statute. 


Sedition  ( (1935)  Stat.  Ann.  1938,  Sect.  28.241-3).— Prohibits  advocacy  of  over- 
throw of  government  of  U.  S.  or  of  any  state  by  force  or  violence.  Provides  that  it 
shall  not  be  construed  to  abridge  freedom  of  speech  or  press,  or  peaceful  picketing^ 
Penalty,  not  more  than  5  years  or  $.5,000,  or  both. 

Criminal  Syndicalism  ( (1919)  Id.,  Sect.  28.235-6). — The  advocacy  in  any  man- 
ner by  word  of  mouth,  writing,  etc.,  of  the  duty  or  propriety  of  crime,  sabotage,, 
violence,  or  other  unlawful  methods  of  terrorism  as  a  means  of  accomplishing, 
industrial  or  political  reform,  etc.,  or  the  justifying  of  such  acts,  or  becoming: 
an  organizer  or  member  of  an  organization  or  assemblage  advocating  such,  is  a 
felony.    Penalty  10  years,  $5,000,  or  both. 

Subversive  Organizations  Registration  Act  ((1947)  Ses'sion  Laws,  No.  134)- — 
Requires  subversive  organizations  to  register  and  to  identify  their  published: 
material.    Penalty,  up  to  5  years,  $5,000,  or  both. 

Regulation  of  Teachers  (Mason's  1940  Supp.,  Sect.  7615). — ^Loyalty  oathj 


Crim,inal  Syndicalism  ((1917)  Laws  1917,  Sect.  10057-60) .—It  is  a  felony  to 
advocate  in  any  manner  by  word  of  mouth,  writing,  etc.,  the  doctrine  advocating 
crime,  sabotage,  violence,  or  other  unlawful  methods  of  terrorism  as  means  of 
accomplishing  industrial  or  political  ends ;  also  to  be  a  member  of,  or  assemble 
with,  group  advocating  such.  Penalty,  10  years,  $5,000,  or  both.  Owner,  lessor,. 
agent,  or  occupant  of  a  building  permitting  such  unlawful  assemblage  guilty  of" 
gross  misdemeanor  and  subject  to  1  year,  $500,  or  both. 


Nothing  of  interest  found.  However,  in  1942,  Mississippi,  like  Louisiana,, 
passed  an  act  m-aking  it  unlawful  to  teach  disloyalty  or  to  urge  refusal  to  honor 
the  U.  S.  or  State  flags.  Like  the  Louisiana  act,  it  was  a  temporary  measure  and. 
was  designed  to  expire  automatically  at  the  end  of  the  war. 


Conspiracy  to  Commit  Specific  Acts  of  Violence  ((1845)  Rev.  Stat.  1939,  p.. 
1019,  Sect.  4270-71). — Prohibits  conspiracy  to  overthrow  or  interfere  with  gov- 
ernment, to  levy  war  against  any  part  of  the  people,  or  to  remove  them  forcibly 
out  of  the  State,  or  from  their  habitations.  Note  that  this  statute  ante-dates- 
the  Civil  War. 


Sedition  ( (1919)  Rev.  Code,  1935,  Sect.  10737-8) .—The  uttering,  printing,  writ- 
ing, publishing,  etc.,  of  disloyal,  profane  contemptuous  slurring,  etc.,  language 
about  U.  S.  government  or  form  of  government  of  U.  S.,  U.  S.  Constitution  or 
flag,  soldiers  or  sailors  of  U  S.  or  uniforms  of  such,  etc.,  or  any  language  cal- 
culated to  bring  such  into  contempt,  scorn  or  disrepute,  or  language  calculated  tO' 
incite  resistance  to  U.  S.  or  state  authority,  etc.,  is  unlawful.  Penalty,  fine  of  from 
$200-$20,000  and  imprisonment  from  1-20  years. 

Criminal  Syndicalism  ( (1918)  Id.,  Sect.  10740-4). — It  is  a  felony  in  any  manner 
to  urge  the  doctrine  which  advocates  crime,  violence,  force,  destruction  of  prop- 
erty, etc.,  or  other  unlawful  acts  or  methods  as  a  means  of  accomplishing  indus- 
trial or  political  ends,  or  revolution,  etc.,  to  be  a  member  of  organization  or 
assembly  advocating  such.  Penalty,  $200-$l,000 ;  1-5  years.  Further  inhibi- 
tion against  use  of  premises,  punishable  as  misdemeanor. 

Note. — In  1941  Montana  passed  a  temporary  war  measure  designed  to  insure- 
the  reemployment  in  State  and  Civil  Service  of  veterans  and  prohibited  the 
filling  of  any  such  vacancy  with  a  communist  or  member  of  the  German-Americani 
Bund.     Why  the  act  was  limited  to  vacancies  created  by  military  service  and 


why  it  did  not,  instead,  prohibit  the  appointment  or  employment  of  communists, 
etc..  in  all  positions  of  state  employment,  are  not  apparent. 
Regulation  of  Teachers'  {Rev.  Code  1935,  Sect.  i327.i).— Loyalty  oath  statute. 


Criminal St/ndicalism  ( (1919)  Rev.  Stat.  19J,3.  Sects.  28.815-17).— It  is  a  felony 
by  word  of  mouth  or  writing,  to  advocate,  suggest,  etc.,  the  propriety,  necessity, 
etc.,  of  crime,  physical  violence,  destruction  or  damage  of  property  etc.,  or 
sabotage,  as  a  means  of  accomplishing  industrial  or  political  reform,  or  for 
profit — also  to  organize  or  be  a  member  of  an  organization  advocating  such^ 
Penalty,  1-10  years,  up  to  $1,000,  or  both. 


Criminal  SyndicaHsm  {{1919)  Comp.  Laws,  1929,  Sects.  10560-^) .—It  is  a- 
felony  to  urge,  teach,  justify,  etc.,  in  any  manner,  the  doctrine  which  advocates 
crime,  sabotage,  violence,  or  unlawful  methods  of  terrorism  as  means  of  accom- 
plishing industrial  or  political  reform,  or  to  be  a  member  or  organizer  of  a  group 
or  assembly  advocating  such.  Penalty,  up  to  10  years,  $5,000,  or  both.  Prohi- 
bition against  use  of  premises,  punishable  as  misdemeanor. 

Regulation  of  Teachers  (Stats.  1947,  Sect.  322). — Loyalty  oath  statute. 

Criminal  Anarchy  {Comp.  Laws  1939,  Sects.  10296-10299).— It  is  a  felony  to 
advocate  by  speech,  printing,  etc.,  or  in  any  manner,  the  doctrine  that  organized 
government  should  be  overthrown  by  force  or  violence,  or  by  assassination,  or 
other  unlawful  means — or  to  be  a  member  of  assembly  advocating  such. 


Sediti077  { {1919)  Put).  Laws  1926,  eh.  39',,  See.  26,  28-30).— Prohibits  advocacy 
of  overthrow  or  change  in  government  of  U.  S.  or  New  Hampshire,  or  interference 
with  any  public  or  private  right  by  force  or  unlawful  means.  Also  prohibits 
assembling  for  such  purposes;  likewise,  introducing  into  the  state,  publishing,  dis- 
tributing, or  having  in  possession  for  distribution  any  matter  including  pictures, 
advocating  overthrow.  Penalty,  up  to  10  years,  or  $5,000,  or  both,  and  injunction 
provision  for  destruction  of  books,  pictures,  etc. 


Criminal  Anarchy  {{1902)  Rev.  Stat.  1937,  Vol.  1,  Sec.  2;  i 7.3-7-9). —Prohibits- 
advocating  anarchy,  becoming  a  member  of  an  anarchistic  organization  or  society 
or  introducing  or  circulating  any  printed  matter  inciting  or  tending  to  incite 
anarchy.    Penalty,  not  more  than  $2,000  nor  15  years,  or  both. 

Incitement  to  Specific  Arts  of  Violence  {{1908)  Id.  2:  173-10-11)  .-Vrohihits 
advocating  the  burning  or  destruction  of  property;  assaults  upon  the  Army,  Na- 
tional Guard,  or  police  force ;  killing  or  injuring  any  class  of  persons  or  any 
individual ;  and  the  publishing  or  circulation  of  any  book,  etc.,  tending  to  incite 
such  unlawful  acts.    Penalty,  up  to  7  years,  $100-$2,000,  or  both. 

Sedition  {{1918)  Id.  2: 173-12-22).— Prohibits: 

(a)  Inciting  or  attempting  to  incite  insurrection  or  sedition.  Penalty,  not 
more  than  $10,000,  nor  more  than  20  years,  or  both. 

(b)  Advocating  subversion  or  destruction  of  State  or  Federal  Government. 
Not  more  than  $2,000  or  10  years,  or  both. 

(c)  Attending  meeting  or  joining  society  advocating  destruction  of  ^tate- 
or  Federal  government.    Penalty,  $2,000,  10  years,  or  both. 

(d)  Printing  or  producing  books,  pamphlets,  pictures,  emblems,  etc.,  incit- 
ing destruction  of  State  or  Federal  government.  Up  to  $2,000,  7  years,  or 

(e)  Selling,  distributing,  or  possessing  books,  pamphlets,  pictures,  em- 
blems, etc.,  inciting  destruction  of  State  or  Federal  government.  Up  to 
$2,000,  7  years,  or  both. 

(f )  Letting  rooms  or  buildings  to  organizations  advocating  destruction  of 
State  or  Federal  government.    Up  to  $2,000,  7  years,  or  both. 

(g)  Hiring  rooms  or  buildings  for  organizations  advocating  the  above. 
Up  to  $2,000,  7  years,  or  both. 

(h)  Allowing  use  of  building  by  such  organizations.  Up  to  $2,000,  7  years, 
or  both. 

(i)  Displaying  red  or  black  flag  or  other  emblem  inciting  destruction  of 
State  or  Federal  government.    Up  to  $2,000,  15  years,  or  both. 


(j)  Displaying  flag,  picture,  etc.,  advocating  overthrow  of  government. 
Up  to  $2,000,  7  years,  or  both. 

(k)  Opposing  enlistments  or  advocating  noncorporation  with  Federal 
government  in  carrying  on  war.    Up  to  $2,000,  7  years,  or  both. 


(a)  German- American  Bund  Auxiliary. — Charter  repealed  and  trustees  di- 
rected to  of  its  property  and  terminate  its  business  forthwith.  (1941), 
'Session  Laws,  June  3,  p.  571,  ch.  1S5. 

(b)  Bar  to  Order  EstnbllshUuj  Date  and  Place  of  Birth  ((19.',2)  Id.,  May  2, 
p.  SJf8-50,  ch.  95). — Prohibits  the  Courts  from  entering  any  such  Order  in  the  case 
of  any  person  who  is  engaged  in,  or  who  believes  in,  or  who  belongs  to  any  organi- 
zation which  advocates  overthrow  of  government. 

(c)  8i(bversire  Activities  Investigation  Commission  ( {19^7)  Assembly  Con- 
current Res.  No.  11,  April  7,  W'P). — Governor  directed  to  appoint  Commission  to 
investigate  subversive  activities  within  the  public  schools  and  all  other  schools 
and  Universities  within  the  State.  Report  to  be  filed  and  legislation  recom- 

Regulation  of  Teachers  {Rev.  Stats.  1937,  Sect.  18:13-9).— 'Loyalty  oath 


Sedition  ( (1919)  Stat.  Ami.  1929,  Sec.  35.3101-5)  .—Frohih'its  any  act  aimed  at 
destruction  of  government,  or  which  is  antagonistic  to  or  in  opposition  to  or- 
ganized government,  inciting  revolution  or  opposition  to  such  government.  Em- 
ployers knowingly  employing  persons  so  engaged  are  punishable.  Penalty,  up 
to  10  years,  or  $1,000,  or  both.  Note:  Held  unconstitutional  in  State  v.  Diamond 
(1921),27N.  M.  477. 


Regulation  of  State  Employees  and  Teachers  ( (19-iO)  Session  Laws,  April  17, 
p.  1 -',99-1500,  ch.  56-'f,  Superseding  Laws  1939,  ch.  547). — Provides  that  no  person 
shall  be  appointed  to  any  ofiice  or  position  in  the  service  of  the  State  or  of  any 
civil  division  or  city  thereof,  nor  sliall  any  person  presently  so  employed  be 
continued  in  such  position,  nor  shall  any  person  be  employed  in  the  public 
service  as  superintendents,  principals,  or  teachers  in  a  public  school  or  any  other 
:state  educational  institution,  who  : 

(a)  Advocates  or  teaches  the  overthrow  of  government  by  force,  violence, 

(b)  Prints,  publishes,  edits,  issues,  or  sells  any  book,  paper  or  document 
advocating  such  doctrine. 

(c)  Organizes,  or  helps  to  organize  or  becomes  a  member  of  any  such 

Further  provides  for  right  of  appeal  and  hearing  in  open  court  for  anyone 
aggrieved  thereby. 

Criminal  Anarrhg  {(1902)  Thompson's  Laws  1939,  Part  1,  Art.  14,  Sects.  160- 
166). — Defined  and  applied  to  any  person  advocating  anarchy  or  assembling  for 
such  purpose.  Penalty,  up  to  10  years,  .$.j,OUO,  or  both.  Provisions  against  use 
of  premises  for  such  unlawful  purposes.  Not  more  than  2  years,  or  $2,000,  or 
both.  Contains  provision  eximerating  editors  for  publication  of  such  matters, 
without  knowledge,  and  when  promptly  disclaimed  upon  discovery.  Also  grants 
immunity  from  prosecution  to  witnesses  who  produce  self-incriminating  evidence. 

Subversive  Organizations  Registration  Act  (Thompson's  Laws,  Civil  Rights 
Law,  Sect  53-56). — Registration  of  constitution,  membership  list,  etc.,  required. 


Sedition  ((1941)  Session  Laws,  p.  4^-49,  ch.  37). — Unlawful  in  any  manner 
wilfully  to  advocate,  etc.,  the  doctrine  that  the  government  of  the  state  or  U.  S., 
or  any  political  subdivision,  shall  be  overthrown  or  overturned  by  force  or  violence 
■or  other  unlawful  means.  It  is  a  felony  to  advocate  in  any  manner  the  duty, 
propriety,  etc.,  of  overturning  government  of  U.  S.  or  political  subdivision  by 
force  or  violence,  or  other  unlawful  means,  or  to  print,  disseminate,  etc.,  writing, 
advocating,  etc.,  that  doctrine.  Includes  membership  in  organization  advocating 
such.  Editors,  proprietors,  etc.,  of  newspapers,  etc.,  are  chargeable  witli  matter 
published  therein,  as  are  managers  of  associations,  etc.,  by  which  such  were 


lucitnucnt  to  ^'^pceific  Arts  of  Violnicc  ((I8GS)  Gen.  ."^tat.  19',3.  Art.  3,  f^ec. 
jJf.S.lO). — Applies  to  rebellion  and  insurrection.  Membership  in  secret  political 
or  military  organizations  also  prohibited. 

Kci/iilaiion  of  State  Ewployecs  {(Gen.  Stats.  191,1,  ch.  14,  Sect.  i2.i).— This- 
is  not  a  separate  statute  but  was  enacted  as  an  amendment  to  the  .sedition  statute, 
supra.  It  provides  that  seditious  individuals  shall  not  be  employed  by  the  State- 
and  that  persons  alreadj-  employed,  who  engage  in  subversive  activities,  shall 
be  discharged. 


Regulation  of  Teachers  {Rev.  Code  19J,3,  Vol.  2,  Sect.  i5-^70/).— Loyalty  oatb 


criminal  Syndicalism  {{1919}  Page's  Gen.  Code  Ann.,  eh.  22,  Sec.  13^2-23- 
26).— It  is  a  felony  to  urge,  by  word  of  mouth  or  writing,  the  doctrine  whicli 
advocates  crime,  sabotage,  violence,  and  other  unlawful  methods  of  terrorism, 
as  means  of  accomplishing  industrial  or  political  reform.  Includes  joining  as- 
sembly or  organization  advocating  such.  Penalty,  up  to  10  years.  $."),0(I0,  or 
both.  "  I'ermitting  use  of  premises  for  such  unlawful  purposes  declared  a  mis- 

Exclusion  From  Ballot  (  {1941)  Session  Laics,  June  4.  p.  586-88}. — Subversive 
parties  excluded.    Statute  siuiilar  to  that  in  other  states. 


Exclusion  From  Ballot  {{IS-il)  Session  Lairs,  May  15,  p.  91-93).— Bins  Com- 
munist Party  by  name;  also  the  Third  Communist  International  and  all  parties 
directly  or  indirectly  affiliated  therewith.  Kequires  filing  of  affidavits  with  Sec- 
retary of  State  and  makes  provisions  for  investigation,  hearing,  and  appeal.  A. 
comii'anion  statute  renders  members  of  sul)versive  groups  ineligible  as  candidates 
at  primary  elections  (Okla.  1941,  May  12,  p.  100-102). 

Regnlaiion  of  Public  Offieers  and  Emploijees  {(1941)  Id.,  May  15,  p.  209- 
11). — Subversive  individuals  disqualified  from  public  ofiice  or  State  employ- 
ment, and  subject  to  removal.  This  statute  contains  an  unusual  provision  in  that 
it  also  subjects  the  appointing  officer  to  removal  for  appointing  a  subversive 

Crimineil  Syndicalism  {{1919)  Stat.  1941,  Title  21,  See.  1261-4).— It  is  a 
felony  to  advocate,  etc.,  by  word  of  mouth  or  writing,  the  doctrine  which  ad- 
vocates, etc.,  the  duty,  propriety,  etc.,  of  crime,  physical  violence,  destruction  of 
property,  or  other  unlawful  acts  or  methods,  as  a  means  (;f  accomplishing  indus- 
trial or  political  ends  or  revolution,  or  for  profit.  (Includes  joining  assembly  or 
organization  advocating  such,  which  is  punishable  as  a  misdemeanor).  Penalty^ 
up  to  10  years,  $5,0(X),  or  both. 

Regulation,  of  Teachers  (Harlow's  Stats.  1941,  ch.  10,  Sect.  961). — Loyalty  oath 


Exclusion  From  Ballot  {{1941)  Session  Laws,  April  2,  p.  861,  ch.  .^7.9).— Pro- 
vides that  no  person  shall  be  a  candidate  for  public  office  who  is  affiliated  with 
any  organization  which  teaches  the  doctrine  of,  or  advocates,  the  overthrow  of 
the  goverinnent  of  the  U.  S.  by  force  or  violence.  The  name  of  no  such  person, 
as  a  candidate,  shall  be  placed  upon  any  ballot  within  the  state  and  no  such 
person  shall  be  eligible  for  appoinimtnt  to  a  public  office.  Note  that  this  statute 
is  directed  against  the  individual  and  not  against  the  party  or  organization. 

Con.s'piracg  to  Commit  Felony  (1931). — A  1919  statute  on  criminal  syndi- 
calism was  repealed  and  replaced  by  this  general  statute  on  conspiracy.  Penalty^ 
up  to  3  years,  .$1,000,  or  both. 

Regulation  of  Teachers  (Comp.  Laws  Ann.  IBJfO,  vol.  8,  Sect.  111-2102). — 
Loyalty  oath  statute. 


Exclusion  From  Ballot  (  (19^1)  Session  Laws,  July  28.  pp.  526-530,  Xo.  213). — 
Subversive  groups  and  parties  prohii)ited  from  nominating  candidates  for  public 
office.  Provision  for  affidavits  to  be  filed  with  Secretary  of  State,  investigation,, 
determination,  and  appeal  to  the  courts. 


Regulation  of  State  Employees  {{I94I)  lb.,  pp.  530-531,  No.  214). — State  em- 
ployment denied  to  subversive  individuals.  Provision  for  removal  for  those 
already  so  employed.     Further  provision  for  hearing  and  appeal  to  the  Courts. 

Sedition  {(1919)  Amended  1921,  1939.  Purdon's  Stat.  Ami,  19^0,  Siipp.  Sect. 
4207). — Any  writing,  publication,  printing,  utterance,  conduct,  etc.,  individually 
•or  in  combination,  with  intent : 

(a)  To  cause  outbreak  of  violence  against  state  or  U.  S. 

(b)  To  encourage  persons  to  engage  in  conduct  with  view  to  overthrow  or 
destroy  government  of  state  or  U.  S. 

(c)  To  encourage  persons  to  do  any  act  to  bring  U.  S.  or  state  government 
into  disrepute. 

(d)  To  incite  persons  to  harm  public  official,  his  property,  or  i^ublic  prop- 
erty, is  a  felony. 

Includes  organizing  or  becoming  member  of  assembly  or  group  with  policies 
advocating  such.     Punishment  up  to  20  years,  $10,000,  or  both. 


(a)  Welfare  and  Puhlic  Assistance  {(194.3)  Session  Laws,  No.  191,  Sec.  6,  p. 
43S). — Except  as  otherwise  specifically  provided  in  the  case  of  pensions  for  the 
blind,  welfai-e  and  public  assistance  is  denied  to  subversive  individuals. 

(b)  Wrtr  Opposition  {(1S61)  amended  1939,  Purdon's  Stat.  A7in.  194O  Stipp., 
Sec.  4203). — Prohibits  dissuading  persons  from  entering  service  of  the  U.  S.  or 
Pennsylvania,  with  intent  to  oppose  or  subvert  the  State  or  Federal  government. 

(c)  Regulation  of  Police  Force  (Session  Laws  1941,  ch.  45). — Subversive  indi- 
viduals disqualified  as  members  of  Police  Force  under  Civil  Service  in  cities. 


Criminal  Syndicalism  and  Anarchy  {(1919)  Gen.  Laics,  1938,  cli.  604). — Con- 
tains a  special  wording,  viz,  prohil)iting  "language  intended  to  incite  a  defiance 
or  disregard  of  the  Constitution  or  laws  of  Rhode  Island  or  U.  S."  Further 
prohibits  advocacy  of  any  change  in  form  of  government  except  as  provided  by 
Constitution  or  other  laws,  advocacy  of  assassination  of  government  officials,  or 
the  destruction  or  damaging  of  any  public  or  private  property  as  an  incident  to 
a  programme  of  force,  violence  or  revolution,  or  wilfully  displaying  any  flag 
or  emblem  proposed  to  be  superior  to  the  form  of  government  of  the  U.  S. 
Penalty,  up  to  10  years,  $10,000,  or  both.  Statute  contains  membership  and  con- 
spiracy clauses  and  any  meeting  for  such  purpose  is  unlawful  assembly,  subject 
to  dispersal  in  the  same  mann(3r  as  riotous,  tumultuous,  or  treasonable  assemblies. 


Regulation  of  Teachers  (Code  1942,  Sect.  5324  (3) ).— Loyalty  oath  statute. 


Criminal  Syndicalism  {(1918)  Code  1939,  Sec.  13.0801-4) .—^t  is  a  felony  to 
advocate,  further,  etc.,  in  any  manner,  the  doctrine,  which  teaches,  advocates 
or  practices  crime,  sabotage,  violence  or  other  methods  of  terrorism,  or  the  de- 
struction of  life  or  propery,  for  the  accomplishment  of  social,  economic,  in- 
dustrial or  political  ends — and  includes  possession,  display,  or  publication  or 
writing  advocating  such  with  intent  to  so  advocate,  or  the  organizing  or  as- 
sembling with  persons  advocating  such,  or  acting  in  pursuance  of  that  purpose. 
Penalty,  1-25  years,  $1,000-$10,000,  or  both. 

Regulation  of  Teachers  (Code  1939,  Sect.  15.3702).— IjOjalty  oath  statute  . 

Regulation  of  State  Employees  (Code  1939,  Sect.  17.0107). — Applies  to  aliens 
only  and  provides  that  no  alien,  who  has  not  declared  his  intention  to  become  a 
naturalized  citizen  of  the  U.  S.  shall  be  employed  by  the  State  or  any  political 
subdivision  thereof. 


Exclusion  From  Ballot  {(1938)  Code,  Sec.  1936  (i) ).— Bars  subversive  politi- 
cal parties,  their  individuals  and  candidates  from  any  place  on  the  ballot  for 
public  office.  Requires  affidavit  of  all  new  parties  and  makes  violation  a  pun- 
ishable offense. 

Incitement  to  Specific  Acts  Of  Violence  ((1915)  Id.,  Sec.  ii038).— Prohibits 
advising,  inciting,  or  conspiring  to  commit  the  offense  known  as  "night  riding." 
Punishable  by  3-15  years. 


Sedition  ((1857-8)  Id.,  Sec.  11026). — Any  person  uttering  seditious  words, 
spreading  false  news,  writing  or  dispersing  scurrilous  libels  against  state  or 
general  government,  disturbing  or  obstructing  any  lawful  officer  in  executing 
liis  office,  or  of  instigating  others  to  cabal  or  meet  together  to  contrive,  suggest, 
etc.,  or  incite  rebellious  conspiracies,  riots,  or  any  manner  of  unlawful  feuds  or 
4ifferences,  thereby  to  stir  people  up  maliciously  to  contrive  the  ruin  and  de- 
struction of  peace,  safety  and  order  of  government,  or  knowingly  concealing  such 
pi'actices,  is  guilty  of  misdemeanor.  Up  to  1  year,  $1,000,  or  both ;  also  bonds  to 
keep  the  peace,  and  ineligibility  to  hold  public  office  for  3  years. 


Exclusion  From  Ballot  {(1941)  Session  Laics,  June  30,  p.  877,  ch.  547). — 
Directed  against  the  individual,  rather  than  the  party  or  organization.  Provides 
that  no  person  shall  be  permitted  to  have  his  name  appear  upon  any  official  ballot 
^s  a  candidate  for  any  office  unless  he  file  with  the  Secretary  of  State  an 
-affidavit  that,  if  elected,  he  will  support  and  defend  the  Constitution  of  the  U.  S. 
and  of  Texas,  and  will  resist  any  effort  to  subvert  or  destroy  representative 
form  of  government.  Specifically  provides  that  no  candidate  or  nominee  of  the 
Communist,  Nazi,  or  Fascist  party  shall  ever  be  allowed  a  place  on  the  official 

Rciiulation  of  Teachcr.9  ( (19 ',1)  Session  Laivs,  June  30,  pp.  1107-8,  ch.  568). — 
Faculty  members  of  State-supported  institutions  subject  to  discharge  for  sub- 
versive beliefs  or  activities. 

Rcf/ulafion  of  Faculty  of  State  Institutions  ((1941)  Session  Laivs,  July  23, 
p.  1355,  ch.  617). — All  teachers  and  instructors  of  tax-supported  schools,  colleges, 
■universities  or  other  institutions  of  learning  shall  take  oath  of  office  and,  subject 
to  hearing,  shall  be  discharged  for  subversive  activity. 


Criminal  Syndicalism  ((1919)  Rev.  Stat.  1933,  Sects.  1 03. 5 Jf-1-5).— It  is  un- 
lawful to  advocate,  suggest,  justify,  etc.,  in  any  manner,  by  word  of  mouth, 
printing,  etc.,  the  doctrine  which  advocates  crime,  violence,  force,  destruction 
of  property,  or  other  unlawful  methods  or  acts,  as  means  of  accomplishing  in- 
dustrial or  political  ends,  changes  or  revolution.  Penalty,  1-5  years,  .$200-$1.000, 
or  both.  Similar  provision  for  assembling  for  such  unlawful  purpose.  Use 
of  premises  punishable  as  misdemeanor. 

Regulation  of  State  Police  Hif/htcay  Patrol  (Laivs  1945,  ch.  118). — Persons 
•with  subsevsive  affiliations  barred  from  State  Highway  Patrol  appointments. 


Criminal  Anarchy  (  (1919)  Put).  Laics,  1933,  Sects.  8.370).— Prohibits  incitement 
through  advocacy  of  assault  upon  or  killing  of  public  official,  destruction  of 
property,  overthrow  of  state  government  by  force  or  violence,  or  meeting  with 
others  to  advocate  violation  or  refusal  to  obey  laws  of  state  regarding  preserva- 
tion of  peace  and  protection  of  life  and  property.  Penalty,  up  to  3  years,  or 
$1,000.  or  both. 

Regulation  of  Teachers  (Laics  1935,  No.  88). — Loyalty  oath  statute. 

Teachers  Engaging  In  Propaganda  (Pub.  Laics,  1933,  Sect.  4236). — Subject  to 


Consipracy  To  Commit  Specific  Acts  Of  Violence  ((1877-78)  Code  1936,  Sect. 
jfS92). — Prohibits  conspiracy  for  incitement  of  colored  population  to  violence 
.against  whites  or  vice  versa.     Penalty,  5-10  years. 

Sedition  ((1948)  Acts  of  Assembly  No.  392,  ch.  172). — It  is  a  felony  to  ad- 
vocate any  change,  by  force  or  violence,  in  the  government  of  the  state  or  any 
of  its  subdivisions,  or  of  the  U.  S.— joining  or  assisting  or  otherwise 
contributing  to  any  group  or  organization  which,  to  the  knowledge  of  the  per- 
son, advocates  such  is  also  a  felony.  Act  not  to  apply  to  advocating  change  in 
government  by  peaceful  means.    Penalty,  $1,000-$5,000,  2-5  years,  or  both. 


Criminal  Anarchy  ((1941)  Session  Laws,  Mar.  24,  pp.  676-7,  ch.  215).— This 
appears  to  be  an  amendment  and  reenactment  of  an  earlier  statute  passed  in 


1909.  It  is  a  felony  to  advocate  in  any  manner  the  doctrine  that  organized 
government  should  be  overthrown  by  force  or  violence,  assassination  of  executive 
otlicials,  or  by  any  unlawful  means,  or  justifying  such,  or  to  become  a  member 
or  assemble  with  a  group  so  advocating.  Penalty,  up  to  10  years,  $5,000,  or  both, 
and  ineligible  for  state  employment  for  5  years. 

Criminal  Si/iidicalistn  Hl91<J)  Rev.  Stat.  A7i)i.,  19S2,  Sects.  i:563.1-ll).— 
Unique — Whoever,  with  intent  that  his  act  shall,  or  who  has  reason  to  believe 
that  it  may,  injure,  interfere  with,  etc.,  agriculture,  lumbering,  mining,  manu- 
facturing, tran.'^portation,  etc..  wherein  persons  are  employed  for  wage  shall  wil- 
fully injure  or  destroy,  or  attempt  or  threaten  to  do  so.  any  property,  mechanism, 
apiiiiance,  etc.,  is  guilty  of  a  felony — resembles  sabotage  laws.  Includes  anyone 
who,  with  intent  to  supplant,  impair,  etc.,  owner's  management  or  control  of  any 
enterprise  listed  above,  shall  unlawfully  take  or  retain,  or  threaten  to  do  so,  con- 
trol of  any  property  or  instrumentality  used  in  such  enterprise.  It  is  a  felony 
also  to  advocate,  etc..  sucli  doctrine  or  conduct  in  any  manner,  or  to  organize  or 
become  a  member  of  assemblage  advocating  above.  Penalty,  up  to  $.'>,000,  10 
years,  or  both. 

Regulation  of  Teachers  {Pierce's  Code  1939,  Sect,  jp'31-1). — Loyalty  oath 

Incitement  To  Specific  Acts  Of  yi(jJ<nce  (Pierce's  Code  1939,  Sect.  8750).-^ 
Inciting  or  encouraging  a  breach  of  p.^ace  or  disrespect,  or  disrespect  for  law  or 
courts,  or  permitting  premises  to  be  used  for  anarchy  are  declared  to  be  a  gross 


Sedition  and  Criminal  Siiridicalism  ( {1919)  Code  Ann.  1931,  Sect.  5912).— It  is 
unlawful  to  speak,  print,  communicate,  etc.,  in  any  manner  any  doctrine  in  sym- 
pathy with  or  in  favor  of  ideals,  institutions,  or  forms  of  government  hostile, 
inimical,  or  antagonistic  to  those  existing  under  constitution  and  laws  of  state 
or  U.  S.,  or  in  sympathy  with  or  in  favor  of  crime,  violence  or  other  unlawful 
methods  of  terrorism  as  means  of  accomplishing  econiimic  or  political  reform,  or 
in  sympathy  with  or  in  favor  of  the  overthrow  of  organized  society,  the  unlawful 
destruction  of  property,  or  violation  of  law.  It  is  a  mistlemeanor  to  uphold  or 
justify  organized  insurrection  of  armed  invasion. 

Rec/ulation  of  Teacliers  (Code  Ann.  19J,3.  Sect.  ^807)  .—Loyalty  oath  statute. 

Incitement  To  Specific  Acts  of  Violence  (  {1849)  Code  Ann.  19^3,  Sect.  5911).— 
Applies  to  justifying  armed  invasion. 


Exclusion  From  Ballot  (  (WJ/l)  Srssion  Lan-s,  May  13,  pp.  145-6,  eh.  105). — No 
party  shall  be  recognized  or  qualitied  to  participate  in  any  election  if  ;. filiated 
directly  or  indirectly  with  communist  party  of  the  U.  S.  or  the  third  conununist 
international,  nv  any  otlier  foreign  agenc.v.  political  party,  etc.,  engaged  in  sub- 
versive activities.  The  Secretary  of  State,  with  advice  of  Attorney  General,  shall 
determine  which  parties  are  eligible.     Provision  for  appeal  to  the  courts. 

Criminal  Anarchy  {(1903)  Stats.  1945,  Sects.  347.14-18} .—It  is  a  felony  to 
advocate,  justify,  ( tc,  in  any  manner  the  doctrine  that  organized  government 
should  be  overthrown  b.v  force  or  violence,  or  by  assassination  of  executive  offi- 
cials of  government,  or  any  unlawful  means — org-inizing  or  becoming  a  member 
of  an  organization,  or  voluntarily  assembling  with  group  advocating  such  doc- 
trine is  also  a  felony.  Editors,  proprietors,  etc.,  of  publications  are  chargeable 
with  matter  contained  in  such  publications.  Similar  to  New  York  and  North 
Carolina  statutes  in  this  respect.     Penalty,  o-lO  years,  up  to  $5,000  or  both. 


Exclusion  From  Ballot  {(19J,r)  Sess'ion  Laws.  Feb.  1,  pp.  11-12,  ch.  9).— 
Excludes  alien  political  parties.    Similar  to  statutes  in  other  states. 

Criminal  Syndicalism  ((1919)  Comp.  Stat.  1945,  Atin.  Art.  4,  Sect.  9-401). — 
Prohibits  inciting,  advising,  advocation,  suggesting  or  encouraging  crime  as  a 
means  of  coercion  or  for  the  accomplishment  of  any  political  or  industrial  reform, 
change  or  purpose  in  Wyoming  or  in  any  foreign  state  or  country.  Offense  termed 
"incitement  to  crime"  and  made  punishable  up  to  5  years.  $5,000,  or  both.  (Offend- 
ers also  subject  to  peace  bond  and  commitment  for  default  of  such  recognizance. 


Appendix  C — State  Statutes  (By  Subject  Matter) 

As  a  convenient  reference,  the  state  statutes,  as  classified  in  Appendix  li, 
may  be  grouped  and  summarized  as  follows  : 

lucitciHciit  To  Siiccific  Acts  of  Violence. — 14  states,  viz,  Arkansas,  Connecticut, 
Horida,  Georgia,  Illinois,  Kentucky,  Louisiana,  Maryland,  Missouri,  New  Jersey, 
North  Carolina,  Tennessee,  Virginia,  and  West  Virginia.  Note,  however,  that 
the  Arkansas,  Missouri,  Kentucky,  and  Virginia  statutes,  instead  of  being 
classified  as  "Incitement,  etc.",  are  termed  "Conspiracy"  (To  Commit  Specific- 
Acts  of  Violence).  Also,  the  Maryland  statute,  a  Civil  War  Measure,  is  now 
obsolete  and  hardly  shovild  be  included. 

Incitement  to  violence  might  be  termed  a  mild  form  of  conspiracy.  These 
statutes  are  narrower  in  scope  than  sedition,  anarchy  and  syndicalism  acts, 
though  somewhat  overlap  them,  as  heretofore  indicated.  The  Colorado  statute 
very  nearly  approaches  the  classification  of  "Criminal  Anarchy." 

Sedition. — 21  states,  viz.  Alabama,  Arkansas,  Colorado,  Connecticut,  Delaware, 
Illinois,  Indiana,  Iowa,  Kansas,  Kentucky,  Louisiana  (limited  to  State  Guard),. 
Michigan,  Montana,  New  Hampshire,  New  Jersey,  New  Mexico,  North  Caro- 
lina, Pennsylvania,  Tennessee,  Virginia,  and  West  Virginia. 

In  this  group  have  placed  all  broad  statutes  against  radical  utterances,  except  which  are  entitled  anarchy  or  syndicalism  statutes.  The  subject  matter 
also  overlaps  those  acts  against  "Incitement  To  Specific  Acts  Of  Violence." 

Criminal  Anarchy. — 12  states,  viz,  Alabama,  Arkansas,  Colorado,  Florida, 
Massachusetts.  Nevada,  New  Jersey,  New  York,  Rhode  Island,  Vermont,  Wash- 
ington, and  Wisconsin. 

For  the  most  part  this  group  derives  from  the  New  York  Act  of  1902.  The 
Massachusetts  and  Vermont  acts  are  narrower  and  might  be  classed  under  the 
heading  of  "Incitement  To  Specific  Acts  Of  Violence."  The  Colorado  statute 
is  a  combination  of  sedition  and  anarchy  ;  the  Rhode  Island  statute,  a  combina- 
tion of  criminal  syndicalism  and  anarchy. 

CriDiiiKil  Si/ndicdlisin. — IS  states,  viz.  California,  Idaho,  Iowa,  Kansas,  Ken- 
tucky, Michigan,  Minnesota,  Montana,  Nebraska,  Nevada,  Ohio,  Oklahoma,  Ore- 
gon, Rhode  Island,  South  Dakota.  Utah,  Washington,  and  Wyoming. 

IJ  .ret  II  si  on  From  Ballot. — 14  states,  viz.  Arkansas,  California,  Delaware,  Illi- 
nois, Indiana,  Kansas,  Oklahoma,  Ohio,  Oregon,  Pennsylvania,  Tennessee,  Texas,. 
Wisconsin,  and  Wyoming. 

The  statutes  assume  variable  forms,  though  all  seek  to  accomplish  the  same 

Regulation  of  Schools,  Teachers,  Puhlic  Officers,  etc. — 26  states,  viz,  Arizona, 
Arkansas,  California,  Colorado.  Florida,  Georgia.  Illinois.  Indiana,  Maryland 
(constitutional  amendment).  Massachusetts,  Michigan.  Montana,  Nevada,  North 
Dakota,  New  Jersey,  N'ew  York,  Oklahoma,  Oregon,  Pennsylvania,  South  Caro- 
lina. South  Dakota.  Texas.  Utah,  Vermont,  W^ashington,  and  West  Virginia. 

These  statutes  are  of  recent  vintage,  all  having  been  enacted  during  or  since 
W'orld  Wai'  II.  The  most  common  among  them  are  the  so-called  "Teachers' 
Loyalty  Oath  Statutes"  which  exist  in  20  of  these  states. 


In  additii)n  to  the  foregoing,  there  are  various  other  types  of  state  statutes 
which  are  considered  to  be  of  vicarious  interest,  but  not  of  sufficient  importance 
to  be  reviewed  individually.  For  the  information  of  the  Commission  these  are 
classified  :is  follows,  i.  e..  Statutes: 

Against  Opposition  To  '\Vur. — 13  states,  viz,  Florida,  Iowa,  Louisiana,  Minne- 
sota, Missouri,  Montana,  Nebraska,  New  Hampshire,  New  Jersey,  Pennsylvania, 
Texas,  West  Virginia,  Wisconsin. 

Against  Red  Flags  and  Other  Insignia. — 3.3  states,  viz,  Alabama,  Arizona,  ' 
Ai-kansas,  California,  Colorado,  Connecticut,  Delaware.  Idaho,  Illinois,  Indiana^ 
Iowa,  Kansas.  Kentucky,  Massachusetts,  Michigan.  Minnesota.  INIontana,  Ne- 
braska, New  Jersey.  New  Mexico,  New  York,  North  Dakota.  Ohio,  Oklahoma, 
Oregon,  Pennsylvania,  Rhode  Island,  South  Dakota,  Utah,  Vermont,  Washing- 
ton. West  Virginia,  Wisconsin. 

Against  Conspiracy. — 87  states,  viz,  all  except  Connecticut,  Delaware,  Georgia, 
Illinois.  Kansas,  Kentucky,  New  Hampshire,  Ohio,  Pennsylvania,  Texas,  Vermont. 

Against  Incitement  To  Crime  Generally. — 10  states,  viz,  Arizona,  California, 
Idaho,  Montana,  Nevada,  New  Hampshire,  Oklahoma,  South  Dakota,  Washing- 
ton, Wyoming.    Common  law  crime  in  certain  other  states. 


Against  Unlawful  AssemMy. — 43  states,  viz,  all  except  Arkansas,  Indiana, 
Maryland,  Mississippi,  and  Tennessee.  (Common  law  crime  in  some  of  the  other 
states,  including  Maryland.    See  Kaefer  v.  State,  143  Md.  151.) 

Special  statutes  are  directed  against  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  and  similar  groups  in 
New  York,  North  Carolina,  Ohio,  Texas,  and  Washington. 

Nebraska  has  a  special  statute  requiring  meetings  to  be  held  in  the  English 
language,  and  New  Hampshire  has  a  special  statute  for  licensing  parades. 

Note. — There  is  included  in  virtually  all  criminal  syndicalism  statutes  a  pro- 
vision against  assembly  for  such  unlawful  purposes. 

Subversive  Organizations  Registration  Act. — 3  states,  viz.,  California,  Michi- 
gan, New  York. 

Oath  Required  of — 

Legislators :  Arkansas. 
Presidential  Electors :  Georgia. 
State  Guard :  Louisiana. 
Police  Force :  Pennsylvania. 


In  connection  with  reports  issued  from  time  to  time,  the  Committee 
on  Un-American  Activities  is  cognizant  of  the  fact  that  supporters  of 
'Communist-front  organizations  and  even  members  of  the  Communist 
Party,  become  clisilhisioned  and  aware  of  the  true  nature  of  the  move- 
ment. In  fact  it  is  an  objective  of  the  committee  to  hasten  such  dis- 
ilhisionment  and  reeducation.  The  ccmimittee  endeavors  in  its  files 
and  reports  to  record  such  repudiation  wherever  possible,  and  wher- 
ever there  seems  to  be  convincing  evidence  of  genuine  sincerity. 

In  other  cases  where  the  committee  may  have  erred  in  reference  to  an 
individual  or  an  organization,  it  desires  to  amend  its  records  in  order 
to  avoid  any  injustice. 

With  these  purposes  in  view  the  committee  has  decided  to  append 
the  follow^ing  correspondence  and  testimony. 

ExECUTrvE  Session 

United  States  House  of  Representatives, 

Committee  on  Un-American  Activities, 
Washington,  D.  C,  Wednesday,  October  5,  1949. 

The  committee  met,  pursuant  to  call,  at  12 :  45  p.  m.,  in  room  226,  Old  House 
Office  Building,  Hon.  John  S.  Wood  (chairman)  presiding. 

Committee  members  present:  Representatives  John  S.  Wood  (chairman), 
Morgan  M.  Moulder,  Richard  M.  Nixon,  Francis  Case,  and  Harold  H.  Velde. 

Staff  members  present:  Frank  S.  Tavenner,  Jr.,  counsel;  Louis  J.  Russell, 
senior  investigator ;  Donald  T.  Appell,  investigator ;  John  W.  Carrington,  clerk ; 
Benjamin  Mandel,  director  of  research :  and  A.  S.  Poore,  editor. 

Mr.  Wood.  Mr.  Cowherd,  will  you  raise  your  right  hand,  please.  You  solemnly 
swear  the  evidence  you  will  give  this  committee  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole 
truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  I  do. 

Testimony  of  Yelverton  Cowherd 

Mr.  Wood.  Mr.  Cowherd,  the  committee  has  received  a  request  from  you  to  ap- 
pear before  the  committee  for  purposes  stated  in  your  communication,  which 
I  understand  had  reference  to  a  report  issued  by  this  committee  in  June  1947  on 
Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare.     Is  that  correct? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  That  is  correct ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Wood.  Our  study  of  this  report  reveals  that  on  page  4,  and  in  the  next  to 
the  last  paragraph,  mention  is  made  of  you  by  name,  and  it  reads  as  follows : 

"Yelverton  Cowherd,  signer  of  a  resolution  against  the  Dies  committee  In 
1939,  who  appeared  before  the  La  Follette  committee  in  1937  to  defend  the  case 


of  Joseph  Gelders,  was  a  member  of  the  nominating  committee  at  the  first  con- 
ference, according  to  its  official  proceedings." 
Is  that  the  part  of  the  report  to  which  you  take  exception? 

Mr.  CowHEUD.  That  is  one  part.  Gentlemen,  I  had  not  anticipated  a 
quicli  call.  I  have  a  file  on  this  at  home,  but  didn't  have  a  chance  to  get  it.  I 
have  it  all  pretty  well  in  my  head.  I  believe  that  is  the  part  J.  referred  to  as 
a  misstatement  or  misinference  of  fact. 

Mr.  Wood.  So  far  as  we  have  been  able  to  find,  there  is  no  other  reference  to 
you  in  this  report.     Do  you  recall  any  other? 

Mr.  CowHEBD.  Strangely,  this  print  does  not  have  the  same  location  of  para- 
graph as  the  copy  I  have.  That  paragraph,  I  believe,  appeared  at  the  top  of  a 
page,  perhaps  the  next  page,  on  my  copy,  and  the  part  that  was  disturbing  to  me 
after  I  studied  the  whole  report  was  that  in  the  very  beginning,  in  the  part  tell- 
ing how  the  Southern  Conference  was  formulated,  there  were  inferences  that 
it  seems  to  me  supported  a  conclusion  on  the  part  of  anybody  uninformed  that 
I  am  positively  a  Communist  or  was  positively  a  Communist. 

Mr.  Wood.  Will  you  point  out  to  the  committee  where  and  in  what  manner  this 
report  leaves  such  an  inference,  because  certainly  this  committee  does  not  want 
to  do  an  injustice  to  anybody ;  and  I  want  you  later  to  answer  categorically 
whether  the  statements  of  fact  related  in  that  paragraph  are  true  or  not  true, 

Mr.  CowHEKD.  I  knew  nothing  about  the  report  or  the  consideration  of  that 
matter  until  a  university  law  professor  wrote  me  a  letter  and  asked  permission 
to  include  my  case  in  an  article  which  he  said  he  was  preparing  for  the  Harvard 
Law  Review.  Then  I  got  a  copy  of  the  report,  to  see  what  it  was  all  about,  and 
studied  it  carefully. 

This  report,  in  the  first  paragraph  of  the  introduction  says :  "In  the  early 
history  of  the  organization,  some  well-intentioned  persons  were  misled  into 
joining.  Many  of  them  have  since  severed  their  connections  on  learning  its 
true  character,"  without  putting  a  footnote  and  saying  I  was  one  of  those  who 
had  nothing  to  do  with  the  conference  and  was  never  an  official,  as  was  done 
with  regard  to  Henry  Fowler,  that  he  had  withdrawn  and  stating  the  reasons, 
which  reasons  were  exactly  the  same  as  my  own. 

1  was  never  a  member.  I  attended  whenever  the  thing  was  announced.  As  to 
having  served  on  the  nominating  committee,  I  simply  don't  recall.  But  that 
paragraph  did  not  go  on  to  state  the  fact  that  I,  too,  had  no  longer  associated 
with  the  conference  since  1942.  When  Paul  Robeson  appeared  in  Nashville  I 
threw  up  my  hands  and  have  had  nothing  to  do  with  it  since. 

Mr.  Wood.  Did  you  make  any  public  statement  about  it? 

Mr.  CowHEKD.  No.     It  had  never  reached  that  importance  in  my  mind. 

Mr.  Wood.  I  believe  the  reason  the  committee  made  a  footnote  about  Dr. 
Graham  was  that  he  made  a  public  statement. 

Mr.  Cowherd.  No.  They  made  the  footnote  about  Henry  Fowler.  They  didn't 
do  that  about  me,  and  they  listed  my  name  in  the  list  of  people  where  there  was 
an  inference  they  were  Communists. 

Being  listed  under  the  caption  "Communist  manipulation,"  I  am  an  originator 
of  Communist  manipulation  to  anybody  reading  this  report ;  they  could  not  con- 
clude anything  else ;  and  Dr.  Graham  and  all  the  others  will  tell  you  I  was  the 
leader  of  the  opposing  faction,  because  I  was  area  chairman  of  the  Americaniza- 
tion committee  of  the  American  Legion  at  that  time. 

With  regard  to  the  statement  that  I  appeared  before  the  La  Follette  committee 
in  1937  to  defend  the  case  of  Joseph  Gelders,  I  was  particularly  offended  by  that. 

Mr.  Wood.  Is  it  ti'ue  or  not? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  It  is  not  true.  I  appeared  before  the  committee,  but  not  for 
that  purpose.  I  appeared  as  chairman  of  the  Americanization  committee  of  the 
American  Legion.  The  Senate  Committee  on  Education  and  Labor  was  investi- 
gating the  National  Metal  Trade  Association,  and  it  developed — I  didn't  know  it 
then — that  they  were  trying  to  tie  up  certain  citizens  in  Birmingham  with  this 
organization  they  were  investigating,  and  one  of  the  individuals  had  an  unlisted 
phone  number  and  had  been  active  with  me  in  putting  on  Americanization  com- 
mittee programs. 

Two  FBI  men  came  in  my  office  one  day  and  said  they  understood  I  had  this 
individual's  phone  listing.  He  is  now  a  General  in  the  United  States  Army. 
I  will  mention  his  name  if  you  want  it,  but  I  don't  think  that  is  necessary.  I  said : 
"Yes,  I  know  him.  and  he  has  assisted  me  on  my  programs  for  the  Americanization 

They  said:  "Do  you  have  this  telephone  listing?"  I  pulled  it  out  of  my  vest 
pocket  and  said:  "Yes,  that  is  true.    What  do  you  have  in  mind?" 


Being  an  attorney,  I  became  cautious,  and  I  said :  "Gentlemen.  I  believe  I  know 
what  you  are  after,  and  I  have  nothing  to  hide.  If  you  will  get  the  proper  process, 
telling  me  what  documents  you  want,  they  will  not  disappear ;  I  will  produce 
them."  I  thought  they  were  to  be  produced  in  court.  Later  I  got  a  subpena 
duces  tecum  to  appear  before  the  La  Follette  committee  and  bring  documents. 

In  the  course  of  that  investigation,  the  name  of  Gelders  was  brought  up, 
but  I  didn't  app'^ar  to  represent  Gelders.  I  didn't  defend  him  or  condemn  him. 
I  have  known  Jo  >  Gelders — heavens,  he  is  about  my  age:  I  have  known  him 
practically  all  l.v  life.  His  family  is  well  thought  of,  but  Joe  has  conducted 
himself  in  such  a  manner  that  he  has  been  criticized.  I  know  nothing  about  it, 
and  tried  to  find  out  about  him.  I  said:  "I  don't  know  if  J()e  Gelders  is  a 
Communist  or  not."'  And  I  don't  know  to  this  day.  I  said:  "However,  I  have 
tried  to  find  out  about  Joe  Gelders,  and  everyone  says  he  is  honest." 

There  had  been  a  beating  of  a  man  at  that  time — no,  there  had  been  a 
beating  of  Joe  Gelders,  and  he  was  found  in  a  ditch  in  bad  condition  and  he 
was  revived  and  brought  back  to  health.  This  same  man  I  had  the  number 
of,  who  is  now  a  (ieneral  in  the  Army — no,  he  is  now  in  the  National  Guard — 
came  into  my  oflice  the  morning  Joe  Gelders  was  flogged,  and  he  said :  "What 
are  we  going  to  do  about  this  scoundrel  Joe  Gelders?"  I  said:  "What  do  you 
mean  by  'we"?    I  am  not  going  to  do  anything." 

Ml-.  Nixon.  Who  is  Joe  Gelders? 

Mr.  CowHEKD.  He  was  active  in  the  formation  of  this  conference  and  gave 
the  impression,  right  or  wrong,  that  he  was  acting  directly  for  Mrs.  Franklin 
D.  Roosevelt.  Whether  he  was  or  not,  I  don't  know,  but  he  certainly  gave  that 

Mr.  Nixon.  This  report  says  that  Joseph  Gelders  "was  formerly  secretary  of 
the  National  Conmiittee  for  Defense  of  Political  Prisoners,  which  has  been 
cited  as  subversive  by  Attorney  General  Biddle."  The  Daily  Worker  of  April 
6,  1938,  reported  that  he  protested  against  the  ari-est  of  Communists  in  Chatta- 
nooga. And  the  Sunday  Worker  of  fiepttM;il)er  S.  104il  repoited  that  he  was 
leader  of  a  lobby  for  the  American  Peace  Mobilization  which  conducted  a  picket 
line  about  the  White  House  and  denounced  President  Koosevelt  as  a  "war 

That  is  the  record  that  the  committee  report  lias  reference  to. 

Mr.  Case.  Of  course  the  worse  the  record  of  Joseph  Gelders  may  be,  the 
greater  the  injustice  would  be  of  associating  ]Mr.  Gelders'  name  with  Mr. 
Cowherd  seven  or  eight  lines  after  mention  of  Mr.  Gelders'  record,  if  Mr. 
Cowherd  did  not  appear  for  Mr.  Gelders. 

Mr.  Cowherd.  Tlie  testimony  will  show  I  was  under  sultpena  duces  tecum 
and  the  documents  I  produced  were  specified  in  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Wood.  We  have  a  copy  of  the  hearing. 

Mr.  Cowherd.  It  was  an  accurate  report.  It  was  sent  to  me  for  any  correc- 
tions, and  I  had  none  to  make. 

The  only  time  I  read  the  Daily  Worker  was  when  I  was  told  I  was  mentioned 
in  the  Daily  Worker  as  representing  the  rubber  workers,  and  I  got  a  copy 
of  the  paper.  I  believe  I  wrote  to  the  Daily  Worker  and  got  a  copy,  and  as  I 
remember,  the  reference  to  me  was  that  the  rubber  workers  might  well  have 
made  a  serious  mistake  in  employing  Yelverton  Cowherd,  the  South's  A-1 
"lied  baiter." 

Here  is  my  name  between  John  P.  Davis  and  Edward  E.  Strong  and  James 
W.  Ford  and  Herman  C.  Nixon. 

Mr.  Case.  When  was  the  first  conference? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  As  I  remember,  it  was  1937. 

Mr.  Case.  When  did  you  withdraw  or  abandon  any  interest  in  or  affiliation 
with  the  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  I  think  it  was  after  the  conference  in  1941 — no,  it  couldn't 
have  been  1941  because  I  was  in  a  hospital  in  1941.  It  may  have  been  1942. 
I  have  lived  in  Washington  since  May  1942  and  it  was  before  I  came  to  Wash- 
ington.   It  was  after  the  Nashville  conference. 

Mr.  Nixon.  In  other  words,  you  haven't  had  anything  to  do  with  the  organiza- 
tion since  May  1942? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  Mr.  Nixon,  I  had  no  connection  with  it  at  all.  I  liave  had  no 
knowledge  or  information  of  it  since  then. 

Mr.  Case.  Did  you  serve  as  a  member  of  the  nominating  committee  at  the 
first  conference? 

INIr.  Cowherd.  Mr.  Case,  I  don't  deny  it  but  don't  admit  it.    I  don't  remember. 

Mr.  Case.  You  attended  meetings? 


Mr.  CowHFRD.  I  attended  meetinu's  until  May  1942,  hut  let  me  make  this  clear: 
I  was  a  ('iti;':eii  of  Birmingham,  practicing  law  in  the  tirm  that  had  heen  the 
law  tirm  of  Hugo  lilack.  I  came  into  the  lirm  with  Crampton  Harris  and  his 
stepson,  George  Brown.  The  United  Stales  Commissioner,  tlie  Honorable  Louise 
O.  Charleton,  invited  me  personally  to  attend  the  conference.  I  was  informed 
my  esteemed  friend,  Hugo  Black,  tlien  Supreme  Court  Justice  Black,  was  to 
be  presented  the  Southern  Citizenship  medal.  All  those  things  ticliled  my  pride 
and  I  was  glad  to  go  to  it. 

When  I  got  there  I  discovered  those  things  working,  and  then  I  got  heated 
about  it  and  started  working  against  them.  The  Honorable  Louise  O.  Charleton 
was  the  first  chairman,  and  Dr.  (Jraham  was  the  tirst  permanent  chairman,  and 
with  him  I  worked  to  keep  those  tilings  out  of  the  conference,  and  we  finally 
got  the  resolution  through  to  fight  all  forms  of  imperialism  or  dictatorship. 

^Iv.  Case.  (_"an  you  produce  any  records  of  tlie  conference  or  newspaper  reports 
of  the  meetings  which  show  your  activities  in  that  regard? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  It  was  not  publicized  in  the  newspapers,  and  I  was  not  men- 
tioned in  the  records  because  I  was  not  an  official,  but  just  in  attendance,  but 
Dr.  Graham  would  verify  what  I  am  saying.  I  was  a  leader  of  the  rightists 
in  rhe  movement. 

Mr.  CASE.  I  am  reading  from  page  IT  of  the  report,  where  the  conclusion  is 
set  forth : 

"The  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare  is  perhaps. the  most  deviously 
camoutiaged  Conununist-front  organization.  W^hen  put  to  tlie  following  acid 
test  it  reveals  its  true  character: 

"1.  It  shows  unswerving  loyalty  to  the  basic  principles  of  Soviet  foreign 

•'2.  It  has  consistently  refused  to  take  sharp  issue  with  the  activities  and 
policies  of  either  the  Communist  Party,  USA,  or  the  Soviet  Union. 

•'3.  It  has  maintained  in  decisive  posts  persons  who  have  the  confidence  of 
the  Communist  press. 

"4.  It  has  displayed  consistent  anti-American  bias  and  pro-Soviet  bias,  despite 
professions,  in  generalities,  of  love  for  America." 

In  other  w^ords,  you  want  the  committee  to  understand  that  your  activities  in 
the  conference,  to  the  extent  you  attended  their  sessions,  were  opposed  to  these 
characteristics  here  described? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  D.finitel.v,  because  I  had  fought  them  all  the  way  through. 

Mr.  Wood.  Are  you  sufficiently  familiar  with  the  later  activities  of  the  Southern 
Conference  for  Human  Welfare  to  give  an  opinion  as  to  whether  it  did  finally 
come  to  the  point  wliere  it  represented  these  criticisms? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  INIr.  Wood,  I  would  be  stating  a  falsehood  if  I  stated  that,  but 
it  was  going  in  that  direction  when  I  left  it;  that  is  why  I  left  it.  I  would  say 
the  first,  while  it  may  be  true  now,  certainly  was  not  true  at  the  time  I  left  the 
Southern  Conference,  because  the  Chattanooga  confei'ence  before  that  is  the 
one  where  we  had  the  knock-down-drag-out  fight  on  the  resolution  that  Dr. 
Graham  put  across  to  fight  all  forms  of  imperialism  or  dictatorship.  They 
opposed  that  resolution  and  wanted  it  to  read  to  fight  fascism  only. 

I  am  probably  too  old  to  be  hurt  much  by  what  happens,  but  my  youngest 
boy  is  17  years  (jld;  he  will  be  18  in  January.  I  was  in  the  Navy  and  I  know 
from  my  experience  how  his  chances  of  promotion  would  be  hurt  if  this  name 
Yelverton  Cowherd  is  not  cleared  up.  He  has  the  same  name.  That  is  a  peculiar 
name.  It  is  easy  to  peg  and  not  easily  forgotten,  and  it  has  not  been  smeared 
for  212  years.  It  appears  in  the  records  of  Virginia  since  17o7.  I  just  hate  to 
pass  that  kind  of  name  on  to  Jimior  through  any  laxity  on  my  part  to  see  that 
this  is  cleared  up  in  as  dignified  a  manner  as  it  appears. 

I  have  to  brag.  I  don't  know  any  way  out  of  it.  I  know  I  am  pure  on  this 
kind  of  charge.  I  have  spent  my  life  fighting  this  kind  of  thing  I  have  been 
charged  with  espousing. 

Mr.  Case.  Mr.  Chairman,  it  seems  to  me  that  this  gentleman  .should  have  an 
opportunity,  if  he  so  desires,  to  file  anything  in  the  nature  of  a  statement  by 
Dr.  Graham  or  anybody  else  to  attest  to  wh/it  he  is  saying. 

Mr.  Wood.  I  was  about  to  suggest  to  the  committee  that  we  permit  Mr.  Cowherd 
to  file  any  summary  he  desires. 

Mr.  Case.  On  the  statement  that  he  has  made  here  as  to  the  facts,  I  can  see 
tliat  if  I  had  left  the  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare  for  the  reasons 
he  said  he  left  it,  he  wouldn't  want  his  name  to  be  used  and  identified  as  it  is 
identified  here,  in  connection  with  an  organization  that  is  labeled  as  this  organi- 
zation is  labeled  in  this  report. 

Mr.  Nixon.  What  you  mean  is  that  if  Dr.  Graham,  for  example,  could  give  a 
letter  or  statement  to  Mr.  Cowherd  that  he,  in  turn,  could  give  the  committee. 


to  the  effect  that  what  Mr.  Cowherd  has  stated  was  according  to  his  memory  too^ 
that  we  would  have  some  corroboration? 

Mr.  Case.  I  have  never  seen  this  man  before  today,  but  he  has  been  very  posi- 
tive in  his  statements,  and  I  think  he  sliould  have  the  opportunity  to  present  some 
corroborating  material. 

Mr.  Wood.  Without  objection  on  the  part  of  any  member  of  the  committee,  I 
will  say  to  you  that  the  committee  will  be  glad  to  see  such  information  of  that 
nature  as  you  can  furnish  it.  I  would  like  to  ask  you  one  further  question 
categorically.     Did  you  sign  a  resolution  against  the  Dies  committee  in  1939? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  As  I  recall — I  don't  recall  dates,  of  course — I  am  glad  you  asked 
the  question.  The  only  thing  in  my  life  I  have  ever  joined  which  has  later 
become  known  to  me  to  be  classified  as  a  Communist-front  organization  was  the 
National  Lawyers'  Guild.  I  did  join  that.  They  circulated  such  a  resolution. 
A  number  of  lawyers'  names  were  on  it,  among  whom  was  the  one  man  I  regarded 
as  sufficient  proof  of  authenticity  and  character  for  me  to  put  my  name,  and  that 
was  Charlie  Fahey.  I  put  my  name  on  it,  on  a  resolution,  and  I  won't  say  this 
was  not  the  same  resolution.  I  signed  some  resolution  saying,  in  effect,  that 
the  methods  of  the  Dies  committee  in  pul)lishing  things  about  citizens  without 
affording  those  citizens  ample  time  to  discredit  them — just  such  a  thing  as  is 
involved  here — was  a  bad  practice  or  un-American.  I  was  still  in  Alabama  at 
that  time.  Later  I  noticed  in  the  newspapers  that  Charlie  Fahey  had  dropped 
out  of  the  National  Lawyers'  Guild,  and  I  dropped  out. 

Mr.  Wood.  You  don't  maintain  membership  in  that  organization  now? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  No,  sir.  I  knew  CharUe  Fahey  in  Alabama.  When  he  withdrew 
I  did  too,  immediately. 

Mr.  Nixon.  You  withdrew  because  of  the  basic  reason  that  it  was  Communist- 
infiltrated ;  is  that  it? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  I  didn't  have  any  specific  reason.  When  I  saw  Charlie  Fahey's 
reason,  he  was  rather  politic  about  it  but  I  could  see  he  suspected  it  was  under 
Communist  domination,  he  may  even  have  said  it  was,  and  when  I  saw  that  I 

Mr.  Case.  How  did  you  withdraw? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  I  simply  did  not  pay  my  next  year's  dues. 

Mr.  Case.  You  definitely  did  withdraw? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  Yes. 

Mr.  Case.  When  was  that? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  Back  in  1940  sometime. 

Mr.  Case.  There  isn't  a  member  of  this  committee  I  know  of  Avho  wants  to 
penalize  the  sincere  efforts  of  anybody  to  see  that  underprivileged  people,  or  peo- 
ple unable  to  sjk  -i!:  for  themselves,  have  an  adequate  voice  to  right  any  injus- 
tice that  may  be  carried  on  against  them ;  and  for  myself  I  feel  those  efforts  at 
some  time  could  be  attended  with  some  risks.  A  person's  motives  can  some- 
times be  misinterpreted.  I  think  the  tactics  of  the  whole  Communist  organiza- 
tion is  to  cash  in  on  sympathy  that  people  may  have  for  people  who  are  under- 
privileged. That  is  what  makes  it  a  risk  sometimes,  because  they  attempt  to 
capitalize  on  that. 

For  that  very  reason,  I,  personally,  would  want  the  committee's  conduct  to 
be  circumspect  and  not  penalize  people  who  seek  to  right  injustices  of  various 
sorts.  I  wouldn't  want  the  committee  to  be  guilty  of  doing  that.  At  the  same 
time,  we  have  to  try  to  carry  out  the  functions  of  this  committee,  and  that  is 
to  expose  the  activities  of  Communist-front  organizations,  or  the  Communist 
Party  itself,  to  utilize  people  and  organizations.  It  is  wholly  a  question  of 
facts.  I  think  your  statement  here  has  been  very  straightforward.  You  got 
short  notice  and  came  up  here  without  reference  to  material  or  books,  and  your 
statement  has  been  very  direct  and  straightforward,  and  while  1  still  have  an 
open  mind  on  the  thing,  I  did  think  you  should  have  this  opportunity,  and  I  ap- 
preciate what  the  chairman  has  said,  that  opportunity  would  be  given  you  to 
present  supplementary  material. 

Mr.  Cowherd.  I  only  know  of  one  thing,  and  that  would  be  a  statement  by 
Dr.  Frank  Graham. 

Mr.  Case.  You  referred  to  having  served  on  the  American  Legion  commit- 
tee for  Americanization. 

Mr.  Cowherd.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Case.  And  it  was  in  connection  with  that  you  really  went  before  the 
La  Follette  committee? 

Mv.  Cowherd.  That  is  right.  In  other  words,  there  was  an  unlisted  phone 
in  the  ofl^ice  of  the  United   States  Steel  subsidiary  in   Birmingham.     In  that 


office,  right  next  door  to  the  chief  of  police  of  the  Tennessee  Coal,  Iron  &  Railroad 
Co.,  was  a  phone  the  number  of  which,  we  will  say,  was  Main  1313.  That  is  not 
the  number.  It  had  a  4  and  a  6  in  it.  They  had  not  been  able  to  prove,  ap- 
parently, that  that  phone  was  actually  in  those  oflices,  but  by  proving  I  had 
the  listing  of  this  individual  who  was  in  that  office,  and  that  was  the  phone  over 
which  I  called  him,  they  used  that  to  show  the  Tennessee  Coal,  Iron  &  Railroad 
Co.  was  helping  the  National  Metal  Trades  Association  at  that  time.  That  was 
the  missing  link. 

Mr.  Case.  How  did  you  become  a  member  of  the  Americanization  committee 
of  the  American  Legion? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  I  was  very  active  in  the  American  Legion.  In  fact,  I  was 

Mr.  Case.  State  commander? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  No,  Birmingham  commander.  At  that  time  George  Grant,  my 
Congressman,  was  State  commander.  Congressman  Grant  knows  me  intimately. 
Incidentally,  he  told  me  he  was  supposed  to  be  in  attendance  at  the  conference 
too.    Brooks  Hays  was  there. 

Mr.  Case.  Did  George  Grant  have  anything  to  do  with  your  being  chairman 
of  the  Americanization  committee? 

•  Mr.  Cowherd.  No.  There  was  a  county  council,  and  they  were  trying  to  co- 
ordinate the  work  of  the  council  under  one  head,  and  I  was  selected  by  this 
council  to  be  area  chairman  to  coordinate  the  work  of  the  14  posts. 

Mr.  Case.  Did  George  Grant  know  anything  about  your  activities  in  that  con- 

Mr.  Cowherd.  I  am  sure  lie  will  recall  it,  because  he  was  active  200  miles 
farther  down  the  State.  Albert  Rains  is  my  intimate  friend ;  George  Grant ;  Bob 
Jones ;  Brooks  Hays ;  Lister  Hill ;  John  Sparkman ;  we  are  all  friends. 

Mr.  Case.  Are  those  men  familiar  with  the  fact  that  you  were  trying  to  pre- 
vent the  southern  conference  from  going  Communist? 

Mr.  Cowherd.  Brooks  Hays  would.  He  was  in  attendance.  George  Grant  did 
not  attend.  Dr.  Graham  would  be.  They  are  the  only  Members  of  Congress 
I  know  at  this  time  who  would  know  about  it. 

^Ir.  IMoulder.  Judging  from  your  background  and  from  the  testimony  you 
have  given  here,  it  appears  to  me  you  certainly  are  justified  in  appearing  before 
the  committee  to  vindicate  and  redeem  your  name  in  the  report  you  referred  to. 
May  I  suggest  that  in  the  event  nothing  further  appears  to  refute  this  state- 
ment, the  committee,  if  the  facts  so  justify,  should  make  a  finding  and  order  of 
record  to  redeem  and  vindicate  your  name  and  to  remove  this  reference  you  have 
referred  to. 

Mr.  Cowherd.  That  is  the  most  I  could  hope  for,  and  I  tliought  this  was  an 
ethereal  dream.     I  didn't  think  tlie  committee  would  go  that  far. 

Mr.  Wood.  The  furthest  thing  from  the  mind  of  this  committee  is  to  injure 
the  reputation  of  anyone. 

Mr.  Nixox.  I  would  suggest  it  might  be  issued  as  an  addendum  to  the  report, 
such  as  the  note  concerning  Mr.  Fowler,  stating  that  upon  hearing  testimony 
by  Mr.  Cowherd  the  following  facts  were  brought  out  and  are  presented  to  com- 
plete the  record.  In  that  connection,  it  seems  to  me  tlie  points  that  should  be 
developed  in  any  corroboi-ative  statements  by  Mr.  Hays  or  Senator  Graham  would 
be,  first,  that  you  were  in  the  anti-Communist  bloc  in  the  Southern  Conference 
for  Human  Welfare  and  that  you  left  that  organization  in  1942.  Second,  I  think 
it  would  be  well  to  mention  you  were  a  member  of  the  National  Lawyers'  Guild 
and  left  at  the  time  the  split  occurred  between  Communists  and  anti-Communists. 

I  mention  those  two  facts  because  tliose  are  additional  facts  which  definitely 
would  tend  to  establish  an  anti-Communist  attitude. 

Mr.  Case.  And  possibly  George  Grant  or  somebody  familiar  with  your  Ameri- 
can Legion  activities  may  add  a  statement  about  your  activities  in  connection 
with  the  Americanization  committee  of  the  American  Legion. 

Mr.  Cowherd.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  Mr.  Chaillaux,  the  national  director,  was 
the  one  responsible  for  my  appointment. 

Mr.  Case.  And  he  made  the  strongest  speech  against  communism  I  have  ever 

Mr.  Wood.  Get  us  that  information  at  your  earliest  convenience,  and  the  com- 
mittee then  will  take  such  action  as  the  facts  seem  to  warrant. 

We  are  very  grateful  to  you  for  coming  here. 

Mr.  Cowherd.  I  am  grateful  to  you  gentlemen,  as  this  has  had  me  disturbed. 

(Thereupon,  at  1 :  10  p.  m.  on  Wednesday,  October  5,  1949,  the  hearing  was 



The  following:  correspondence  and  accompanying  material  is  self' 
explanatory  and  will  clarify  the  status  of  various  persons  and  organi 
zations  which  have  been  mentioned  in  certain  reports  of  the  Com- 
mittee on  Un-American  Activities. 

Easteen  Division,  Czechosi,ovak  National  Council  of  Amekica, 

June  30,  1949. 
Hon.  Isidore  Dollingee, 

House  of  Representatives,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Sir:  This  is  to  confirm  the  telephone  conversation  of  Mr.  Valucliek  with 
yon  on  Jnne  28th,  concerning  the  statement  which  appeared  in  the  New  Yorli 
Times  on  June  26tli  about  the  American  Slav  Congress,  issued  by  the  Un-American 
■Committee  of  the  House. 

The  letter  which  we  intend  to  send  to  the  New  York  Times,  I  believe,  explains 
the  whole  matter  and  proves  without  fear  of  contradiction  that  the  Eastern 
Division  of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council,  located  in  New  York  City,  nor 
their  officers,  could  be  connected  in  any  way  with  either  the  American   Slav 
■Congress,  or  with  any  un-American  activities. 

Thus  I  would  appreciate  it  very  much  if  you  would  take  this  matter  up  with 
the  Un-American  Committee,  so  that  we  could  get  some  satisfaction  and  that 
our  records,  which  were  smeared  unjustly,  could  be  cleared. 

If  it  is  necessary,  we  are  willing  to  appear  either  liefore  the  Committee,  its 
representatives,  or  any  member  of  the  Department  of  Justice,  because  we  feel 
there  could  be  and  should  be  no  doubt  about  our  love  of  democracy  and  the 
United  States. 

Anything  you  can  do  in  this  matter,  would  be  highly  appreciated. 

Very  truly  yours, 

John  Drahos, 

President,    Eastern   Division    of    the    Czechoslovak    National    Council, 

811  Crotona  Park  N.,  Bronx  60,  N.  Y. 

To  the  Editor  of  the  New  York  Times  : 

According  to  the  New  York  Times  of  June  26,  1949,  the  Report  of  the  House 
Un-American  Activities  Committee  on  the  American  Slav  C/ongress  listed  among 
the  organizations  "actively  associated  with  the  American  Slav  Congress,"  an 
organization  named  as  "The  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America,  New 
York  City." 

There  is  no  organization  listed  under  this  name  in  New  York  City.  However, 
there  exists  in  New  York  City  an  organization  named  the  Eastern  Division  of 
the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  in  U.  S.  A.  and  in  order  to  set  the  record 
straight  its  Executive  Committee  declares: 

1.  The  Eastern  Division  of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  in  U.  S.  A. 
even  durine  the  highest  wartime  collaV)oration  between  the  Soviet  Union  and 
the  United  States  of  America  did  not  directly  or  indirectly  associate  itself  and 
■cooperate  with  the  American  Slav  Congress.  It  was  neither  represented  in  the 
National  Committee  nor  in  the  local  New  York  group  of  the  American   Slav 

€ongress.  -r..   .  .         „  ^i 

2.  After  the  liberation  of  Czechoslovakia  in  194n,  the  Eastern  Division  of  the 
Czechoslovak  National  Council  went  into  an  inactive  status  pending  the  reorgan- 
ization of  its  parental  organization,  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  in  USA 
at  Chicago.  Again  during  this  period  no  contat  t  or  association  of  any  kind 
was  made  or  even  remotely  attempted  wth  the  American  Slav  Congress. 

3  After  tlie  Communist  coup  d'etat  in  Czechoslovalda,  the  decision  was  made 
■by  the  participatinu'  organizations  to  reactivate  the  Eastern  Division  of  the 
Czechoslovak  Nati«mal  Council  in  the  I'SA  with  neither  the  Communist  nor 
P'ascist  organization  Ix^ing  allowed  to  bee  me  members  of  the  new  organization. 

The  reestablished  Eastern  Division  of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council 
in  USA  then  held  a  public  meeting  on  March  10,  1949,  commemorating  the  99th 
birthday  anniversary  of  Thomas  G.  Masaryk,  the  first  President  of  Czechoslo- 
vakia "The  princijial  speakers  were  Hon.  John  W.  Gibson,  assistant  secretary  of 
Labor,  Col.  John  Bennett,  deputy  Mayor  of  New  York  City,  and  Dr.  Petr  Zenkl. 
■chairman  of  the  Council  for  Free  Czechoslovakia,  an  anti-Communist  organiza- 
tion of  the  Czechoslovak  democratic  refugees.    All  speakers,  as  well  as  the  repre- 


sentatives  of  the  Council,  denounced  communism  and  Communist  policies,  botii 
here  and  abroad.  More  than  2,000  persons  participated.  (See  New  York  Times, 
March  11,  1949.) 

4.  Ou  May  Tth,  1949,  the  Eastern  Division  of  the  Czechoslovak  National 
Council  in  the  USA,  called  a  convention  of  democratic  American  Czechoslovak 
organizations  in  the  East.  Again  Communist  and  Fascist  groups  were  excluded. 
The  convention  officially  approved  the  re-activation  of  the  Council,  invited  all 
democratic  American  Czechoslovak  organizations  in  the  East  to  join  the  Council 
and  participate  in  its  anti-Communist  activities.  It  also  declared  unanimously 
its  moral  Support,  in  accordance  with  existing  U.  S.  laws,  of  the  Council  of 
Free  Czechoslovakia,  fighting  for  the  liberation  of  Czechoslovakia  from  Com- 
munist dictatorship.  It  approved  plans  for  extended  help  to  the  democratic 
Czech  and  Slovak  refugees  from  Communist  terror.  The  convention  passed  also 
a  resolution  addressed  to  U.  S.  President,  Harry  S.  Truman,  which  read  in  part: 

"At  this  convention  we  wish  to  convey  to  you  our  assurances  that  Americans 
of  Czechoslovak  origin  are  deeply  loyal  to  democratic  ideals  of  the  United  States 
of  America  and  sincerely  devoted  to  this,  our  country.  The  loss  of  democracy 
in  Czechoslovakia,  the  country  of  our  forbears,  has  brought  to  us  a  new  real- 
ization of  the  liberties  enjoyed  in  all  equality  and  a  deeper  sense  of  obligation 
to  <mr  nation  for  all  Freedoms  so  justly  guaranteed  by  our  Constitution. 

"We  wish  further  to  thank  you  for  your  leadership  in  the  alleviation  of  suffer- 
ing throughout  the  world,  and  for  your  firm  determination  to  safeguard  world 
peace  as  well  as  your  staunch  efforts  against  totalitarian  aggression. 

"Please  accept  our  assurances  that  Americans  of  Czechoslovak  origin  will 
always  be  among  the  to  rise  to  the  defense  of  American  democracy  against 
any  enemy,  internal  or  external." 

This  resolution  was  duly  noted  by  the  White  House,  and  by  the  State  Depart- 
ment, as  confirmed  by  a  special  letter  of  the  latter  to  the  Executive  Secretary 
of  the  Council. 

5.  Ever  since  the  public  announcement  of  the  re-activation  of  the  Eastern 
Division  of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council,  the  organization  and  its  repre- 
sentatives have  been  a  target  of  violent  and  slanderous  attacks  by  the  American 
Communist  press.  Some  of  its  leaders  were  even  attacked  by  the  Czechoslovak 
Comnumist  radio  in  its  shortwave  broadcasts  directed  to  this  country.  All 
this  is  a  matter  of  public  record  and  anyone  interested  so  deeply  in  the  subversive 
activities  in  this  country  as  the  House  Committee  should  be,  could  not  possibly 
overlook  these  facts. 

6.  The  House  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  obviously  did  not  even 
bother  to  check  up  on  its  information,  especially  its  source,  because  during  the 
investigation  of  the  American  Slav  Congress  activities  not  one  of  the  Committee's 
investigators  or  members  cared  to  approach  the  representatives  of  the  Eastern 
Division  of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  in  USA  to  check  up  the  veracity 
and  objectivity  of  given  information. 

7.  The  fact  that  the  same  Committee  Report  (as  quoted  by  the  New  York 
Times)  lists  among  tlie  so-called  "loyal  groups"  one  organization,  named  the 
Slovak  League  of  America,  supports  the  foregoing  impressions  about  the  Com- 
mittee's neglect  to  check  up  the  reliability  in  its  own  material.  The  Slovak 
League  of  America  was  in  this  country  during  the  last  war  a  fanatical  de- 
fender and  spokesman  of  the  Nazi  Slovak  puppet  state  and  ardent  proponent 
of  its  Fascist  ideology.  ITiis  is  also  a  matter  of  public  record.  And  the  same 
Slovak  League  of  America  is  now  conducting  a  violent  campaign  of  hate  against 
the  Czechoslovak  democratic  liberation  movement  and  its  leaders,  united  in  the 
Council  of  Free  Czechoslovakia.  Thus  this  so-called  "loyal"  organization  is 
attempting  to  create  dangerous  dissensions  and  splits  among  tlie  Americans  of 
Slovak  origin,  preventing  the  formation  of  an  effective  and  united  anti-Com- 
munist front  among  all  Czechoslovaks  abroad.  Since  the  Council  of  Free 
Czechoslovakia  was  .sanctioned  l)y  the  U.  S.  authorities,  this  "Slovak  League  of 
America"  is  working  against  the  present  American  foreign  policy  and  against 
the  best  interests  of  this  country.  It  is  no  coincidence  that  among  its  leaders 
one  will  find  notorious  rabble  rou-sers  and  demagogues.  One  of  them  was  even 
convicted  to  Sing  Sing  prison  for  five  years  for  the  land  frauds  which  he  helped 
to  organize  among  the  Slovak  immigrants  under  the  guise  of  Slovak  chauvinism. 

Finally,  the  fact  that  among  the  so-called  "loyal"  organizations,  mostly  Cath- 
olic groups  ai'e  listed  by  the  Committee,  giving  certainly  the  impression  of  bias 
and  partiality. 


It  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  House  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities, 
by  such  poorly  prepared,  organized,  and  documented  report  is  once  more  defeating 
its  own  commendalile  purpose,  and  giving  aid  and  comfort  to  the  Communists 
and  their  fellovp-travelers. 

The  Eastern  Division  of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  in  the  USA  will 
continue  in  its  anti-Communist  and  democratic  efforts  among  the  Americans  of 
the  Czech  and  Slovak  origin  in  the  East  undeterred  by  the  Committee's  unfair, 
unjust  and  irresponsible  accusations  of  loyal  Americans. 

Congress  of  the  United  States, 

House  ov  Uepresextatives, 
Washington,  D.  C,  July  8,  19 '{9. 
Hon.  John  S.  Wood, 

Chairman,  Committee  on  Vn-American  Activities, 
House  of  Representatives,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Dear  Mr.  AYood  :  Enclosed  is  a  copy  of  the  letter  I  received  from  the  Eastern 
Division  of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council,  and  a  copy  of  their  letter  to  the 
New  York  Times. 

They  are  requesting  that  they  be  given  tlie  opportunity  to  appear  before 
your  committee  in  order  that  they  may  clear  their  record  and  show  that  their 
being  placed  on  the  list  of  those  actively  associated  with  the  American  Slav 
Congress,  was  an  error  which  should  be  corrected. 

Your  courtesy  in  giving  this  request  your  favorable  consideration,  would  be 
appreciated.    Please  let  me  know  what  action  you  decide  to  take. 
Thanking  you  for  your  attention,  I  am 
Sincerely  youi's, 

Isidore  Dollinger,  M.  C. 

JU1.T  12,  1949. 
Honorable  Isidore  Dolungeir, 

House  of  Representatives,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Colleague  :  I  have  received  your  letter  of  July  8,  1949,  enclosing  a  com- 
plaint from  the  Eastern  Division  of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  Amer- 
ica alleging  that  an  error  was  made  in  listing  this  organization  in  our  report  on 
the  American  Slav  Congress  and  associated  organizations. 

The  Committee's  report,  on  page  5,  simply  reprints  the  statement  made  during 
the  proceedings  of  the  second  All-Slavonic  meeting  held  in  Moscow  in  1942  that 
greetings  were  received  from  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America. 
The  report,  on  page  5,  mentions  the  fact  that  the  proceedings  of  the  second  All- 
Slavonic  meeting  were  published  in  pamphlet  form  in  English  by  the  Foreign 
Languages  Publishing  House  in  Moscow  in  1942. 

Page  17  of  the  Committee  report  states,  under  the  heading  "Second  American 
Slav  Congress,"  that  "credentials  submitted  to  the  conference  showed  the  fol- 
lowing organizations  as  represented"  :  Tlie  name  of  the  Czechoslovak  National 
Council  appears  as  one  of  the  organizations  represented.  The  statement  is  based 
on  the  fact  that  the  published  proceedings  of  the  Second  American  Slav  Congress, 
held  at  Carnegie  Music  Hall  in  Pittsburgh  on  September  23  and  24,  1944,  states 
that  greetings  were  submitted  by  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council. 

Between  pages  24  and  25  of  the  report,  a  photograph  appears  which  was  taken 
from  the  Souvenir  Joui'nal,  Rally  to  Win  the  Peace,  Third  American  Slav  Con- 
gress, held  in  New  York  on  September  20.  21,  and  22,  1946.  It  should  be  noted 
that  the  name  of  Joseph  Martinek,  Executive  Secretary,  Czechoslovak  National 
Council,  appears  in  the  descriptive  data  applying  to  the  photograph  mentioned. 

The  statements  made  in  the  Committee's  report  are  all  based  on  documents 
issued  by  the  American  Slav  Congress  or  one  of  its  aflSliates.  It  must  be  realized 
that  there  ai'e  many  organizations  among  the  foreign-language  groups  which 
have  similar  names.  In  fact,  the  Communists  sometimes  adopt  such  names  for  the 
purpose  of  misleading  the  public. 

In  this  connection,  I  should  like  to  draw  your  attention  to  the  footnote  appear- 
ing at  the  bottom  of  page  17  of  the  American  Slav  Congress  report  which 
indicates  how  names  of  organizations  are  sometimes  confused.  The  footnote 
points  out  that  a  previous  publication  of  the  Committee  referred  to  the  Polish- 
American  Labor  Council  as  a  Communist  organization.  However,  the  name 
of  the  subversive  organization   should  have  been   the  American-Polish  Labor 


Council.    It  is  set  forth  in  the  footnote  that  this  error  was  caused  by  a  mistake 
in  translation. 

I  am  today  communicating  with  tlie  Eastern  Division  of  the  Czechoslovak 
National  Council  to  advise  the  oflScers  of  the  organization  that  the  Committee 
will  be  glad  to  correct  any  erroneous  impressions  which  might  have  been  created 
by  its  report  on  the  American  Slav  Congress. 

A  copy  of  the  Committee's  report  on  the  American  Slav  Congress  is  trans- 
mitted herewith. 

Sincerely  yours, 

John  S.  Wood,  Chairman. 


JUI.Y  12,  1949. 
Mr.  John  Drahos, 

President,  Eastern  Division,  Csechoslovak  National  Conncil, 
811  Crotona  Park,  Bronx  GO,  New  York. 

Dear  Mr.  Drahos  :  The  Honorable  Isidore  Dollinger  has  referred  to  the  Com- 
mittee on  Un-American  Activities  the  letter  which  he  received  from  you  and  a 
copy  of  your  letter  to  the  New  York  Times  with  respect  to  the  inclusion  of  the 
Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America  in  the  Committee's  report  on  the 
American  Slav  Congress  and  associated  organizations. 

The  Committee's  report,  on  page  5,  simply  reprints  the  statement  made  during 
the  proceedings  of  the  second  All-Slavonic  meeting  held  in  Moscow^  in  1942  that 
greetings  were  received  from  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America.  The 
report,  on  page  5,  mentions  the  fact  that  the  proceedings  of  the  second  All- 
Slavonic  meeting  were  published  in  pamphlet  form  in  English  by  the  Foreign 
Languages  Publishing  House  in  Moscow  in  1942. 

Page  17  of  the  Committee  report  states,  under  the  heading  "Second  American 
Slav  Congress,"  that  "credentials  submitted  to  the  conference  showed  the  follow- 
ing organizations  as  represented :  "The  name  of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Coun- 
cil appears  as  one  of  the  organizations  represented."  The  statement  is  based  on 
the  fact  that  the  published  proceedings  of  the  Second  American  Slav  Congress, 
held  at  Carnegie  Music  Hall  in  Pittsburgh  on  September  23  and  24,  1944,  states 
that  greetings  were  submitted  by  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council. 

Between  pages  24  and  2.j  of  the  report,  a  photograph  appears  which  was  taken 
from  the  Souvenir  Journal,  Rally  to  Win  the  Peace,  Third  American  Slav  Con- 
gress, held  in  New  York  on  SeptWuber  20,  21,  and  22,  1946.  It  should  be  noted 
that  the  name  of  Joseph  Martinek,  executive  secretary,  Czechoslovak  National 
Council,  appears  in  the  descriptive  data  applying  to  the  photograph  mentioned. 

If  the  information  set  forth  in  the  Committee's  report  does  not  conform  with 
the  facts,  the  Committee  will  be  glad  to  receive  from  you  a  statement  which  will 
be  made  a  part  of  the  Committee's  file  on  the  American  Slav  Congress  and  asso- 
ciated organizations. 

Very  truly  yours, 

John  S.  Wood,  Chairman. 

Congress  of  the  United  States, 

House  of  Representatives, 
Washington,  D.  C,  July  21, 1949. 
Mr.  Charles  M.  Prchal, 

President,  Czechoslovak  National  Conncil  of  America, 
2S45  South  Kedzie  Avenue,  Chicago  23,  Illinois. 
Dear  Me.  Prchal  :  Receipt  is  acknowledged  of  your  letter  of  July  18, 1949,  with 
respect  to  the  inclusion  of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America  in  the 
report  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on  the  American  Slav  Con- 
gress and  associated  organizations. 

The  Committee's  report,  on  page  .5,  simply  reprints  the  statement  made  during 
the  proceedings  of  the  second  All-Slavonic  meeting  held  in  Moscow  in  1942  that 
greetings  were  received  from  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America. 
The  report,  on  page  5,  mentions  the  fact  that  the  proceedings  of  the  second  All- 
Slavonic  meeting  were  published  in  pamphlet  form  in  English  by  the  Foreign 
Languages  Publishing  House  in  INIoscow  in  1942. 

Page  17  of  the  Committee  report  states,  under  the  heading  "Second  American 
Slav  Congress,"  that  "credentials  submitted  to  the  conference  showed  the  follow- 
ing organizations  as  represented :"  The  name  of  the  Czechoslovak  National 
Council  appears  as  one  of  the  organizations  represented.    The  statement  is  based 


on  the  fact  that  the  published  proceedings  of  the  Second  American  Slav  Congress, 
held  at  Cai-negie  Music  Hall  in  Pittsburgh  on  September  28  and  24,  1944,  states 
that  greetings  were  submitted  by  the  Czechoslovalv  National  Council. 

Between  pages  24  and  25  of  the  report,  a  photograph  appears  which  was  talven 
from  the  Souvenir  Journal,  Rally  to  Win  the  Peace,  Third  American  Slav  Con- 
gress, held  in  New  York  on  September  20,  21,  and  22,  194(i.  It  should  be  noted 
that  the  name  of  Joseph  Martinek,  executive  secretary,  Czechoslovak  National 
Council,  appears  in  the  descriptive  data  applying  to  the  photograph  mentioned. 

The  Committee,  in  its  report,  recognized  that  certain  persons  and  organiza- 
tions formerly  connected  with  the  American  Slav  Congress  may  have  withdrawn 
without  such  action  having  been  brought  to  the  attention  of  the  Committee.  The 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  is  happy  to  learn  that  the  Czechoslovak 
National  Council  of  America,  including  its  Eastern  Division,  is  no  longer  af- 
filiated with  the  American  Slav  Congress  and,  in  fact,  is  actually  denouncing  it 
and  its  policy  among  the  Czechoslovak  people  within  the  United  States. 

The  material  which  you  enclosed  with  your  letter  of  July  18  will  be  made  a 
part  of  the  Committee's  file  on  the  American  Slav  Congress  and  associated 

Sincerely  yours, 

John  S.  Wood.  Chnlrnuin. 

Telephone  Bishop  7-5397 

Officers  :  John  A.  Cervenka,  Honorary  President ;  Charles  M.  Prchal,  President ;  John  VoUer, 
Vice  President ;  Martha  Kralik,  Vice  President ;  Ladislav  Janik,  Secretary  :  Frank  Zak^ 
Treasurer ;  Blanche  J.  Cihak,  Executive  Secretary 

Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  Amkkica 

234  5    south   KEDZIE   AVENUE 

Chicago  23,  111. 

July  ISth,  1940. 
The  Committee  on  Un-Amekican  Activities, 
House  of  Representatives,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Gentlemen  :   According  to  your  report  on  the  American   Slav  Congress,   as 
quoted  by  the  New  York  Times,  on  June  26,  1949,  the  "Czechoslovak  National 
Council  of  America,  New  York  City,"  was  included  among  organizations  "ac- 
tively associated  with  the  American  Slav  Congress." 

This  informati'  u  is  untrue,  incorrect,  unjust,  and  misleading. 

1.  There  is  no  organization  listed  as  the  "Czechoslovak  National  Council  of 
America,  New  I'ork."  The  headquartex's  of  our  organization  is,  and  has  been 
for  decades,  located  in  Chicago,  Illinois.  Our  New  York  branch  is  known  as 
the  Eastern  Division  of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America." 

2.  The  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America  is  not  and  never  has  been 
Communistic  or  sympathetic  to  Communism.  Paragraph  5,  Article  III  of  its 
constitution  as  adopted  in  1942  and  ratified  unanimously  by  all  subsequent  con- 
ventions, explicitly  states : 

"This  organization  will  not  be  sub.iected  to  any  foreign  control,  nor  will  engage 
in  any  military  activity  or  efforts  to  organize,  control,  or  overthrow  the  govern- 
ment by  the  use  of  force,  violence,  or  military  means." 

3.  The  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America,  with  headquarters  in  Chi- 
cago, refused  to  participate  in  the  original  Slavic  Committees,  wliich  were  spon- 
sored by  the  Communists  and  their  sympathizers  in  the  summer  of  1941.  We 
joined  the  American  Slav  Congress  only  when,  on  the  motion  of  our  representa- 
tives, this  organization  obtained  a  letter  of  clarification  from  our  Department 
of  State.  We  have  been  known  as  an  outstanding  non-Communist  group  in  the 
American  Slav  Congress  and  our  representatives  strictly  adhered  to  the  advice 
given  by  the  Department  of  State  in  the  mentioned  letter  of  clarification. 

4.  The  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America  cooperated  with  the  Ameri- 
can Slav  Congress  during  the  war,  in  order  to  secure  and  to  fafilitate  a  steady 
and  uninterrupted  flow  of  production  in  tlie  heavy  war  industries,  which  were 
employing  al)OUt  50  percent  of  tlie  workers  of  Slavic  origin,  and  in  order  tfu 
support  the  war  efforts  of  our  government  in  the  struggle  against  Nazism. 

After  the  war  when  the  American  Slav  Congress  began  to  follow  the  changed 
Communist  party  line  and  to  support  new  totalitarianism,  the  Czechoslovak 
National  Council  terminated  its  relations  with  the  American  Slav  Congi-ess. 


Prof.  J.  J.  Zinrlial,  former  president  of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of 
America,  and  until  the  last  convention  of  the  American  Slav  Congress  vice  presi- 
dent of  the  A.  S.  C,  ceased  to  be  president  of  our  organization  after  our  con- 
vention, held  in  1945,  and  has  not  l)een  active  among  us  since  that  time.  Even 
he  repudiated  the  American  Slav  Congress  by  a  public  statement,  in  1948,  when 
that  organization  became  active  in  support  of  Henry  A.  Wallace. 

r>.  Since  the  Communist  overthrow  of  the  democratic  government  of  Czechoslo- 
vakia, the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  f)f  America  became  rhe  central  organ- 
ization of  Americans  of  Czechoslovak  descent,  who  are  opposed  to  communism 
,)nd  strive  t"  liberate  their  old  couiitry  from  the  new  yoke  of  totalitarianism. 
Our  conventions,  held  in  May  and  in  December  1948,  in  Chicago,  became  the 
rallying  points  of  opposition  to  communism  and  all  totalitarian  policies,  uphold- 
ing the  democratic  principles  and  the  Constitution  of  our  country,  and  demanding 
restitution  of  democracy  in  Czechoslovakia.  Enclosed  please  find  the  copies  of 
our  English  bulletin  the  "American  Czechoslovak  Flashes"  stating  our  policies. 

6.  The  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America  is  not  only  not  associated 
with  the  American  Slav  Congress,  but  is  actively  opposing  its  policies  in  our  pub- 
lications "The  American  Czechoslovak  Flashes."  the  Americke  Hlasy  (The 
American  Voices)  and  in  the  "Press  Service  of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council 
of  America"  and  denouncing  the  support,  given  by  the  American  Slav  Congress  to 
the  totalitarian  regimes  in  the  Slavic  countries.  In  its  turn  we  were  attacked  in 
the  publications  supporting  the  American  Slav  Congress,  and  our  leading  mem- 
bers were  included  by  them  in  the  list  of  "ex-kings  and  traitors"  to  the  so-called 
"Peoples  Democracy." 

7.  What  we  state  about  our  organization  applies  fully  to  the  Eastern  Division 
of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  in  New  York. 

In  view  of  these  easily  verified  facts,  it  is  evident  that  your  committee  obtained 
its  information  about  our  organization  from  a  biased  and  unfair  source  which 
deserves  to  be  checked  and  investigated  as  it  created  harm  trying  to  split  the 
anti-Communist  front  among  the  Americans  of  Czechoslovak  origin. 

We  ask  you  respectfidly  to  correct  the  wrong  impression  of  our  organization 
created  by  your  report  on  the  American  Slav  Congress. 
Resi>ectful!y   yours, 

Czechoslovak  National  Couxcil  of  America, 
(S)     Charles  M.  Prchal 

Charles  M.  Prchal,  Pres. 
(S)    Lad.  .Tanik 

Lad.  .Tamk,  Secrcturn. 

[Kelease  No.  1,  March  1949] 


Published  by   tlie   Czechoslovak   National   Council   of  America,  234.5   S.   Kedzie 

Avenue,  Cliicago  23,  Illinois 

Why  the  New  American  Czechoslovak  Flashes 

There  were  .several  reasons  for  the  decision  made  by  the  convention  of  the 
Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America  to  renew  the  publication  of  tlie 
American  Czechoslovak  Flashes  which  was  suspended  in  October  1947. 

First,  it  was  recognized  that  since  two-thirds  of  the  Americans  of  Czechoslovak 
origin  are  composed  now  of  the  native-born  citizens  (of  1,004,800  persons  who 
have  declared  Czech  or  Slovak  language  as  their  mother  tongue  in  the  census 
of  1940  only  331,2(X>  were  foreign  born).  There  is  need  for  a  publication  in,  devoted  to  their  interests.  This  group  is  more  unified  than  the  older 
groups.  Its  members  have  a  common  American  backgrotnid.  To  them  not 
Czech  or  Slovak,  but  English  is  the  principal  means  of  expression.  Among  them 
the  differences  dividing  their  fathers  in  the  past  and  emanating  from  the  Old 
World  background,  are  reduced  to  a  minimum.  This  group  was  fairly  repre- 
sented at  the  convention  of  the  Council  last  December,  and  its  representatives 
expressed  the  wish  to  participate  more  actively  in  the  leadei'ship  of  the  nation- 
ality group  to  which  they  belong.  They  believe  that  the  days  have  passed  when 
mostly  the  voices  of  immigrants  spoke  for  Americans  of  Czechoslovakian  origin. 


The  second  reason  for  renewal  of  this  bulletin  is  the  recent  political  upheaval 
in  Czechoslovakia.  The  community  of  democratic  ideologies  between  Czechoslo- 
vakia and  the  United  States  of  America  ceased  to  exist  when  the  Communist& 
took  over  the  government  of  Czechoslovak  Republic  and  established  their  dictator- 
ship. The  Czeclioslovakian  democracy,  so  intimately  related  to  our  own  wa& 
destroyed  in  February  1948.  Because  the  vast  majority  of  Americans  of  Czecho- 
slovak origin  remain  true  to  the  ideals  and  principles  of  democracy  and  abhor 
totalitarian  i-egimes  everywhere,  it  is  necessary  to  take  a  firm  stand  against 
totalitarianism  in  Czechoslovakia  and  to  protect  ourselves  against  the  infiltration 
of  its  ideology.  The  Communist  regime  of  Czechoslovakia  is  trying  to  gain  favor 
among  the  Americans  of  Czechoslovakian  descent.  This  effort  is  by  no  means 
limited  to  the  immigrants.  A  flood  of  literature  in  English  as  well  as  in  Czech 
and  Slovak  is  pouring  from  Prague  and  Bratislava  to  our  American  societies  and 
even  into  American  public  libraries  under  the  pretext  of  exchange  of  cultural 
information.  Counteracting  this  propaganda  is  the  duty  of  all  freedom  and 
democracy  loving  Americans. 

It  also  was  the  consensus  of  the  opinion  at  the  convention  that  an  intensified 
effort  should  be  made  to  spread  the  knowledge  of  the  history,  the  languages  and 
the  cultural  heritage  of  the  Czechoslovakian  people  who  survived  the  persecution 
of  the  Hapsburgs  and  of  Hitler's  Nazis,  and  who  will  succeed  in  regaining  their 
independence  and  will  again  play  an  important  part  in  the  destinies  of  Europe 
and  the  world.  This  cultural  endeavor  must  be  carried  out  by  our  own  means  as 
no  real  help  can  be  expected  from  Prague  and  Bratislava.  The  Communist  cul- 
ture is  unacceptable  to  Americans.  The  dLssemination  of  cultural  information 
must  not  become  a  wedge  of  propaganda  inimical  to  the  principles  and  ideals  of 
American  and'  Czechoslovakian  democracy. 

Second  to  None  in  Defense  or  Teue  Democracy 

At  the  National  Convention  of  Czech  and  Slovak  Societies  and  Organizations 
which  was  held  in  Chicago  on  December  4-5,  1948.  under  the  sponsorship  of  the 
Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America  the  following  appeal  was  issued  and 
signed  by  the  native-born  delegates : 

^'To  Native-Born  Americans  of  Czechoslovak  Parentage: 

"Brothers  and  Sisters :  During  the  two  world  conflicts  we  enjoyed  almost  com- 
plete coincidence  of  the  ideologies  as  well  as  community  of  national  interests 
between  the  United  States  of  America  and  Czechoslovakia. 

"These  democracies,  led  by  our  great  Presidents  Woodrow  Wilson  and  F.  D. 
Roosevelt,  and  Czechoslovakian  presidents  Masaryk  and  Benes  heartily  cooper- 
ated in  the  struggles  against  the  powers  of  aggression  and  in  the  defense  of 
their  liberties. 

"This  community  of  ideologies  and  interests  came  to  an  unhappy  end  when 
the  Communists  effected  their  Coup  d'Etat  in  Prague  in  February  1948  and 
destroyed  the  Czechoslovakian  democracy  by  brute  force. 

"The  establishment  of  a  totalitarian  regime  in  the  country  of  our  ancestors, 
a  regime  to  which  we  as  true  democrats  are  unalterably  opposed,  casts  its 
shadow  even  among  our  nationality  group  in  the  United  States  of  America. 

"We  deem  it,  therefore,  our  duty  to  proclaim  solemnly  and  strongly  that  we 
detest  the  rule  of  brute  force  and  that  we  oppose  any  attempt  to  spread  the 
poison  of  totalitarian  ideology  among  ourselves. 

"In  order  to  unify  our  opposition  to  dictatorship  we  call  upon  all  native-born 
Americans  of  Czech  and  Slovak  parentage  to  give  full  support  to  efforts  of  the 
Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America  ( Ceckosloven.ska  narodui  rada  v 
Americo)  2345  S.  Kedzie  Avenue,  Chicago  23,  111.,  in  its  endeavor  to  maintain 
true  democracy  among  our  people. 

"Brothers  and  Sisters:  Of  the  Americans  of  Czechoslovakian  ancestry  fully 
two-thirds  belong  to  us,  native  citizens.  It  is  high  time  for  iis  to  t^aise  our  voices 
in  order  to  protect  our  voices  in  order  to  protect  our  good  name  in  this  country 
and  let  the  Woi'ld  knotv  that  our  group  remains' second  to  none  in  defense  of  true 
democracy  and  liherty. 

"Bozena  B.  Spackova,  Betka  Kontos,  Martha  Kralik,  Joseph  Triner, 
John  F.  Brezina,  Andrew  J.  Valusek,  Anna  Falta,  Andrew  J. 
Laska,  Edward  Rezabek,  Joseph  E.  Peck,  James  Krakora,  Julius 
Kuchynka,  Frank  Bardoun,  John  Golosinec,  John  J.  Lisy,  Rose 
Sterba,  Blanche  J.  Cihak,  Vlasta  Dvorak-Bezkostny." 



A  very  rare  and  important  anniversary  will  be  celebrated  next  year  by  the 
Americans  of  Czechoslovakian  origin.  One  hundred  years  ago,  early  in  January 
1850.  a  Czech  society  was  founded  in  New  York  City. 

This  was  the  first  Czech  society  organized  in  the  United  States  of  America. 
The  first  immigrants  from  Czechoslovakia  had  arrived  in  America  at  a  much 
earlier  date.  The  first  Czech  immigrant  was  Augustin  Herman  of  Maryland 
fame,  who  came  to  New  Amsterdam  in  1633.  During  the  eighteenth  century  the 
Moravian  Brethren  came  and  established  their  settlement  in  Savannah,  Georgia, 
in  1735.  They  founded  the  town  of  Bethlehem  in  Pennsylvania  in  1741.  But 
this  originally  Czech  church  included  many  of  other  nationalities  beside  the 
handful  of  Czechs.  It  was  only  after  a  new  wave  of  immigration  following  the 
upheavals  of  1848  in  Europe  that  the  ground  work  for  an  organized  Czech  social 
life  in  this  country  was  laid. 

According  to  Thomas  Capek  this  first  Czech  club,  which  was  organized  for 
benevolent  and  educational  purposes,  was  known  as  the  Czechoslavonian  Society 
in  America.  Others  claim  that  the  name  was  The  First  Czecho-Slavonian  So- 
ciety. Its  headquarters  were  located  at  14  City  Hall  Place  on  the  site  of  tho 
present  Municipal  Building  in  New  York.  It  was  organized  on  the  initiative  of 
Vojta  Naprstek,  a  Czech  patriot  and  a  political  refugee  who  came  to  this  country 
in  December  1848  in  order  to  escape  tlie  clutches  of  the  Austrian  police  who 
sought  to  arrest  him  for  participation  in  the  rebellion  against  the  State.  He 
became  a  librarian  of  the  society,  which  disbanded  in  a  year  or  two.  The  second 
and  more  successful  organization  of  this  kind  was  founded  later  in  1854  in 
St.  Louis,  Mo.,  Bohemian  Slavonic  Benevolent  Society  (CSPS).  It  still  exists, 
under  the  name  of  Czechoslovak  Society  of  America  (CSA)  and  is  known  as 
the  oldest  American  fraternal  union  in  existence. 

The  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America  is  preparing  a  celebration  o£ 
the  100th  anniversary  of  the  New  York  Society  and  calls  upon  all  Czechoslovakian 
organizations  to  take  part  in  this  affair  so  important  for  Americans  of  Czecho- 
slovakian origin.  The  role  they  have  played  in  the  liberation  of  their  old  coun- 
try is  comparatively  well  known.  Less  known  is  the  part  they  have  played  in 
the  development  of  this  country.  The  coming  100th  anniversary  of  the  founding 
of  the  first  Czechoslovakian  society  in  the  United  States  of  America  provides 
an  excellent  occasion  for  a  review  of  their  history.  By  coincidence  this  anniver- 
sary falls  in  with  100th  anniversary  of  the  birth  of  Thomas  G.  Masaryk,  the 
greatest  leader  of  Czechoslovakian  democracy  and  Father  of  the  Czechoslovak 
Republic.  His  close  relations  to  this  country  are  well  known.  His  wife  Charlotte, 
so  beloved  by  all  Czechoslovakians,  was  an  American  lady  of  the  old  American 
stock.  T.  G.Masaryk  issued  the  Declaration  of  Independence  of  Czechoslovakia 
on  the  American  soil,  in  Washington.  D.  C,  on  October  18,  1918.  What  an  oppor- 
tunity for  all  Americans  of  Czechoslovakian  ancestry  to  honor  their  American 
pioneers  and  by  remembering  Masaryk's  heritage  to  reaffirm  their  faith  in 

[Release  No.  2,  April  1949] 


Czechoslovakian  Democracy  Refuses  To  Stay  Buried 

Since  the  Communist  coup  d'etat  which  occurred  in  February  last  year,  over 
20,000  Czechoslovakian  patriots  escaped  abroad.  All  walks  of  life  are  reprxj- 
sented  among  them :  High  officials  of  the  former  democratic  government  and 
leaders  of  non-Communist  parties,  intellectuals  and  artisans,  many  trade-union- 
ists, Sokols,  students,  and  some  persons  deprived  of  their  property,  or  fearing 
the  loss  of  personal  liberty.  Of  186  non-Communist  members  of  the  Parliament, 
57  fled  abroad. 

Of  the  political  refugees  from  the  countries  behind  the  Iron  Curtain,  the 
Czechoslovaks  suceeded  soon  to  form  the  most  unified  and  all-inclusive  political 
representation  abroad,  to  voice  their  demand  for  restitution  of  liberty  of  their 
native  land  and  to  promote  advancement  of  the  economic  and  social  status  of 
the  masses  of  refugees.  It  was  organized  on  the  first  anniversary  of  the  Com- 
nmnist  putsch  and  took  place  in  Washington,  D.  C,  where  on  October  18,  1918, 


Thomas  G.  Masaryk  proclaimed  the  independence  of  Czechoslovakia.  It  is  called 
the  Council  of  Free  Czechoslovakia  and  includes  leaders  of  all  political  parties 
represented  in  the  I're-Comniunist  I'arliament  and  is  enlarged  by  representatives 
of  the  pre-war  Agrarian  party  and  several  outstanding  ambassadors  and  news- 
papermen. Dr.  Petr  Zenkl,  former  vice-premier  of  Czechoslovakia  and  Lord 
Mayor  of  Prague  and  president  of  the  National  Socialist  (Benes)  party,  was 
elected  chairman ;  Dr.  Jozef  Lettrich,  former  president  of  the  Slovakian  Demo- 
cratic Party  and  Vaclav  Majer,  former  Minister  of  Supplies  and  leader  of  the 
Czech  Social  Democratic  Party,  were  chosen  as  vice-chairmen.  The  headquarters 
of  the  Council  are  located  in  Washington,  D.  C,  with  branch  offices  in  London 
and  Paris. 

Immediately  upon  its  foundation,  the  Coimcil  of  Free  Czechoslovakia  issued  a 
proclamation  to  the  Czechoslovakian  people  denouncing  the  Communist  totali- 
tarian regime.  In  a  statement  recently  published,  it  welcomes  heartily  the 
formation  of  the  Atlantic  Pact,  and  its  purpose  to  secure  national  independence 
of  free  countries,  to  maintain  democratic  liberties  and  to  resist  aggression.  It 
also  expressed  the  hope  that  the  forces  of  strengthened  democracy  will  soon 
bring  about  restoration  of  democracy  in  Czechoslovakia,  temporarily  crushed 
but  refusing  to  acknowledge  defeat. 

Spirit  of  Masakyiv  Continues  in  Exile 

(F'rom  the  address  delivered  by  Assistant  Secretary  of  Labor,  Mr.  John  W. 
Gibson,  at  the  commemoration  of  the  ODth  birthdy  of  T.  G.  Masaryk,  which 
was  held  under  the  auspices  of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council,  at  the 
Bohemian  National  Hall,  New  York  City,  March  7,  1949 : ) 

Thomas  Masaryk  died  more  than  eleven  years  ago  and  the  Republic  of  Czecho- 
slovakia was,  in  the  meantime,  twice  dominated  by  foreign  powers.  Once 
pliysically  by  the  Nazis  and  for  the  second  time  by  international  Con  muuism. 

These  powers  were  in  the  past  and  are  now  today  eager  to  obliterate  the 
memory  of  Thomas  Masaryk  in  his  homeland.  At  the  present  time,  his  pictures 
and  books  are  disappearing  in  Czechoslovakia,  though  not  from  the  hearts  and 
minds  of  a  large  majority  of  its  citizens. 

Many  of  his  close  friends  and  followers  left  Czechoslovakia  and  some  of  them 
i-ecently  founded  the  Council  of  Free  Czechoslovakia  in  Washington.  Thomas 
Masaryk's  spirit  continues,  today  in  exile  over  here  in  the  country  he  loved  so 
much,  as  his  followers  seek  to  throw  off  the  yoke  of  oppression  imposed  by  a 
ruthless  dictatorship. 

It  is  the  sincere  hope  of  all  lovers  of  freedom  and  democracy,  that  the  time 
will  come  soon,  when  the  free  citizens  of  Czechoslovakia  will  again  be  able  to 
openly  adhere  to  Thomas  Masaryk's  ideals  which  coincide  with  those  the  entire 
world  is  striving  for  today. 

The  great  Czechoslovak  leader,  whom  you  so  deeply  love,  believed  firmly  in 
democracy  and  freedom.  He  opposed  and  fought  all  dictator.ships,  Nazi  as  well 
as  Communist.  He  taught  his  people  tolerance  and  respect  for  their  fellow  men. 
His  slogan  was  "Truth  will  always  prevail."  Freedom  is  not  only  an  inherent 
right  of  all  Americans,  it  is  the  fundamental  right  of  all  the  peoples  of  the 

Cold  War  Among  Slavs 

The  officers  of  the  American  Slav  Congress  appealed  to  the  members  of  the 
Congress  and  to  the  President,  to  end  the  cold  war  between  the  United  States 
of  America  and  the  Soviet  Union.  They  heartily  recommended  a  meetivUg  between 
President  Harry  S.  Truman  and  Joseph  Stalin.  Unfortunately,  the  American 
Slav  Congress  entirely  forgot  the  cold  war  raging  among  Slavs  themselves  and 
increasing  in  intensity.  This  cold  war  waged  by  terrible  diplomatic  and  eco- 
nomic pressure,  by  Russia  and  her  satellites  against  Yugoslavia,  is  entirely 
appropriate  for  the  American  Slav  Congress  to  address  its  appeal  to  the  Russian 
Politburo  and  Mr.  Stalin,  and  to  recommend  a  meeting  between  Mr.  Stalin  and 
Mr.  Tito,  in  order  to  compose  their  differences  and  to  set  an  example  how  to 
end  a  cold  war.     *     *     * 

Great  Leader  Not  Forgotten 

While  in  Czechoslovakia,  now  under  the  Communist  regime,  INIarch  7,  the 
ninety-ninth  anniversary  of  the  birth  of  Thomas  G.  Masaryk,  the  late  president 


and  founder  of  the  Czechoslovak  Republic,  passed  almost  unnoticed  and  was. 
hardly  mentioned  in  the  press,  the  Czechoslovakian  democrats  in  free  countries 
of  the  world  remembered  the  heritage  of  this  great  leader  of  democracy,  and 
drew  fresh  inspiration  from  his  struggles  for  freedom.  Democratic  refugees 
from  Czechoslovakia  arranged  memorial  meetings  in  every  camp  for  Displaced 
Persons  in  the  Allied  zones  in  Germany  and  Austria,  as  well  as  in  Italy,  in  Lon- 
don, Paris,  and  in  ScandinaviiTn  cities.  Numerous  public  meetings,  lectures^  con- 
certs, and  radio  broadcasts  were  held  in  the  United  States,  by  the  Americans  of 
Czechoslovakian  origin,  and  American  friends  of  Czechoslovakian  democracy. 
The  most  impressive  of  these  celebrations  was  held  on  March  7,  by  the  District 
Committee  of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  and  the  Czechoslovak  Legion- 
naires, at  the  Bohemian  Hall  in  New  York  City.  It  was  addressed  not  only  by 
the  national  and  local  leaders  of  the  group ;  but  also  by  the  representatives  of 
the  Council  of  Free  Czechoslovakia,  recently  founded  in  Washington  by  the 
political  refugees,  and  by  Honorable  John  W.  Gibson,  Assistant  Secretary  of 
Labor.  The  mayors  of  the  cities  of  New  York,  and  Baltimore,  and  governors 
of  the  states  of  New  Y'ork,  Ohio,  Illinois,  and  loAva  proclaimed  March  7th  as 
Masaryk  Day,  in  expression  of  sympathy  of  the  American  people  for  Czechoslovak 
democracy  and  freedom. 

Peepabations  foe  Czechoslovak  Pioneee  Cextenniax 

On  May  7th  a  conference,  called  by  the  District  Committee  of  the  Czechoslovak 
National  Council  of  Eastern  States,  will  meet  in  New  York  City,  for  the  puipose 
of  laying  plans  for  the  celebration  of  the  100th  anniversary  of  founding  of  the 
first  Czech  society  in  the  United  States,  and  the  100th  anniversary  of  the  birth 
of  T.  G.  Masaryk,  the  founder  of  Czechoslovakia.  Similar  preparations  for  the 
Czechoslovakian  pioneer  centennial,  will  be  made  in  other  communities  with  a 
considerable  number  of  the  population  of  Czechoslovakian  descent.  They  wish  to 
honor  their  pioneers  and  to  proclaim  their  loyalty  to  democracy,  as  well  as,  their 
opposition  to  the  totalitarian  regime  which  recently  usurped  power  in  the  land 
of  their  ancestors. 

Masaeyk  Memoeial  Stamps 

To  perpetuate  the  memory  and  high  ideals  of  Jan  Masaryk  and  his  illustrious 
father,  TGM,  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America  issued  Masaryk 
Memorial  Stamps.  They  are  sent  to  all  friends  of  Czechoslovakian  democracy 
who  contribute  to  the  cultural  fund  of  the  organization.  Send  your  orders  to 
2345  S.  Kedzie  Avenue,  Chicago  23,  Illinois. 


Traces  of  Weste7'7i  influence  hard  to  eradicate 

During  the  last  year,  5,970  new  books  were  published  in  Czechoslovakia.  Of 
these  4,286  in  the  Czech  and  770  in  the  Slovakian  languages.  There  were  692 
translations  from  the  foreign  literatures  and  222  books  were  published  in  foreign 
languages.  In  spite  of  all  efforts  to  eliminate  everything  reminding  the  Czecho- 
slovakian people  of  the  West,  the  translations  from  English  still  were  leading. 
Foreign  authors  were  represented  in  this  order :  British,  American,  French,  and 

30,000  Czechoslovakian  workers  to  6e  sent  to  Russia 

Arrangements  were  recently  made  for  sending  30,000  skilled  Czechoslovakian 
workers  to  the  Soviet  armament  plants  in  the  "safe  regions"  beyond  Ural 
Mountains.     This  labor-expeditionary  force  will  not  be  composed  of  volunteers. 

Wotnen  in  the  building  industry 

One  of  the  reforms  which  is  closely  copying  the  Russian  model,  is  extremely 
unpopular  with  the  Czechoslovakian  working  population.  It  is  the  employment 
of  women  as  day  laborers  in  the  building  industry.  The  workers  object  strongly 
to  the  employment  of  women  in  the  hardest  manual  labor  and  have  no  sympathy 
with  this  strange  interpretation  of  the  equal  rights  for  women. 

"Cuttinff  doivn  icages  rightful  and  just" 

Since  Januaiy  1.  1949,  a  new  labor  law  was  adopted  in  the  Communist-ruled 
Czechoslovakia.    The  wages  and  salaries  are  divided  into  eight  categories  mean- 


ing  very  substantial  lowering  of  wages.  The  introduction  of  the  new  law  was 
preceded  by  an  intensive  press  campaign  which  denounced  "equalitarlan  tendency 
in  wages."  Even  "Prace,"  the  main  organ  of  the  Communist-dominated  trade 
unions  admits  that  the  law  is  very  unpopular,  but  concluded  its  article  with  these 
words :  "As  conscious  unionists  and  socialists,  we  must  recognize  that  this  lower- 
ing of  wages  is  both  appropriate  and  just." 


Black  list  revived 

The  Works  Councils  in  the  nationalized  Czechoslovakian  industry  were  in- 
structed by  the  government  to  refuse  employment  to  anyone  who  cannot  produce 
a  statement  from  his  former  employer,  that  he  quit  his  previous  employment 
with  the  consent  of  the  employer  and  is  recommended  by  him. 

Gallows  Humor  Behind  the  Iron  Curtain 

Practically  nobody  in  Czechoslovakia  believes  that  Jan  Masaryk  committed 
suicide.  The  good  people  of  Prague  will  tell  you  with  a  wink  of  the  eye,  that 
Jan  was  not  only  a  gi-eat  statesman  but  also  one  of  the  greatest  acrobats  of  his 
time  because  he  succeeded  in  jumping  out  of  the  window  and  yet  managed  to 
shut  the  window  behind  himself. 

(Published  by  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America,  2345  S.  Kedzie 
Avenue,  CJiicago  23,  Illinois.     Subscription  price  $1.00  for  12  issues.) 

[Release  No.  3,  May  1949] 

President  Truman  Praised  for  Stand  Against  Totalitarian  Aggression 

The  Hon.  Harry  S.  Truman, 

President  of  the  United  States  of  America, 

Washington,  D.  C. 

Mr.  President  :  Americans  of  Czechoslovak  origin  assembled  in  convention 
this  seventh  day  of  May  1949  in  New  York  City  under  the  auspices  of  the  Czecho- 
slovak National  Council  of  America,  Eastern  Division,  send  greetings. 

On  this  occasion  we  wish  to  convey  to  you  our  assurances  that  Americans  of 
Czechoslovak  origin  are  deeply  loyal  to  democratic  ideals  of  the  United  States  of 
America  and  ai'e  sincerely  devoted  to  this,  our  country- 

The  loss  of  Democracy  in  Czechoslovakia,  the  c<mntry  of  our  forebears,  has 
brought  to  us  a  new  appreciation  of  the  liberties  enjoyed  here  in  full  equality 
and  a  deeper  sense  of  obligation  to  our  nation  for  all  freedoms  so  justly  guaran- 
teed by  our  constitution. 

We  wish  further  to  thank  you  for  your  alile  leadership  in  the  alleviation  of 
suffering  throughout  the  world  and  for  your  firm  determination  to  safeguard 
world  peace  as  well  as  your  staunch  efforts  against  totalitarian  aggression. 

Please  accept  our  assurances  that  Americans  of  Czechoslovak  origin  will  always 
be  among  the  first  to  rise  to  the  defense  of  American  democracy  against  any 
enemy,  internal  or  external. 

L.  V.  Vydra,  Sec7-etary. 


Elections  and  plebiscites  under  the  dictators  heretofore  were  a  simple  matter. 
The  single  ticket  supported  by  all  the  ways  and  at  the  disposal  of  a  police  state 
usually  assured  at  least  ninety  i)ercent  approval  of  Hitler's,  Mussolini's,  Stalin's 
or  Franco's  candidates  or  policies.  It  came  therefore  as  a  distinct  surprise 
causing  many  comments  and  was  interpreted  as  a  sure  sign  of  ebbing  of  the 
Communists'"  influence  when  in  recent  elections  in  Eastern  Germany  34  percent 
of  the  electorate  found  courage  to  vote  against  the  single  ticket  presented  by  the 

A  less  commented  upon  and  passed  almost  unnoticed  but  equally  important  sign 
of  the  same  trend  occurred  recently  in  Czechoslovakia. 

Last  March  the  long-posti)oned  elections  to  the  Works  Council  in  Czechoslo- 
vakian factories  were  held  and  resulted  in  a  very  unpleasant  surprise  to  the 
Communist  regime. 


According  to  the  Communist  daily  "Rude  Pravo"  of  April  16,  1949,  one-third  of 
the  eligible  voters  in  Slovakia  and  fully  one-half  of  the  electorate  in  the  Czech 
provinces  of  Bohemia  and  Moravia  failed  to  appear  at  the  polls. 

In  Bohemia  and  Moravia,  the  most  industrial  regions  of  the  Republic,  out  of 
203,044  eligil)le  voters  only  102,830  actually  participated  in  the  elections,  as 
admitted  by  the  Prague  daily. 

This  happened  in  Czechoslovakia,  where  compulsory  Toting  was  successfully 
practised  since  the  inception  of  the  Republic:  where  full  participation  in  the 
elections,  under  Masaryk  and  Benes  was  always  exemplary,  and  where  indus- 
trial workers  always  constituted  the  most  active  and  most  disciplined  political 
srroup,  voting  in  all  elections  almost  to  a  man.  It  should  also  be  mentioned 
that  the  trade-unions  in  Czechoslovakia  are  100-percent  Communist  dominated 
and  yet  failed  to  assure  success  for  tlie  elections  in  the  Czech  factories. 

There  is  only  one  explanation  for  this  phenomenon. 

The  masses  of  Czech  workers  refused  point-blank  to  be  a  party  to  a  political 
farce  and  defied  the  regime  by  their  abstention. 

There  was  only  a  single  ticket  presented  by  the  Communist  trade-unions. 
The  voting  was  not  by  a  secret  ballot ;  it  was  a  public  affair ;  the  votes  were 
oast  in  the  open,  in  ;in  atmosphere  of  intimidation,  and  in  the  presence  of  the 
factory  police  the  so-called  workers  Militia. 

The  refusal  of  one-half  of  the  eligible  voters  to  participate  in  the  elections 
to  the  Works  Councils  is  a  sure  sign  of  the  dislike  of  the  Communist  regime 
among  industrial  workers.  And  the  fact  that  the  Communists  are  losing  favor 
even  with  the  industrial  workers,  the  allegedly  privileged  group,  highly  favored 
by  the  government  is  a  proof  that  a  huge  majority  of  Czechoslovakian  people 
are  opposed  to  the  present  regime  and  detest  totalitarianism. 


The  efforts  of  Czechoslovakian  Communists  to  gain  favor  with  the  Americans 
of  Czechoslovak  origin  meets  with  ever  stronger  opposition. 

Answering  the  call  for  action  in  defense  of  our  democracy,  the  Czech  and  Slo- 
vak organizations  of  the  Eastern  States  met  in  a  highly  successful  convention 
which  was  held  in  New  York  City,  on  May  7. 

The  Convention  was  presided  by  Mr.  Andrew  Valusek,  president  of  the  Slovak 
Sokol  Union,  and  was  addressed  by  Mr.  Charles  M.  Prchal,  of  Chicago,  president 
of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America,  and  by  Dr.  Petr  Zenkl,  of 
Washington,  president  of  the  Council  of  Free  Czechoslovakia,  recently  formed 
by  the  democratic  refugees.  Several  members  of  this  organization  and  a  number 
of  local  leaders  discussed  the  problems  arising  out  of  the  present  crisis.  A 
telegram  was  sent  to  the  President  of  the  United  States  praising  him  for  a  firm 
stand  against  totalitarian  aggression.  A  ringing  call  was  issued  to  all  Americans 
of  Czechoslovak  origin,  stressing  the  opposition  to  Communism  and  welcoming 
the  initiative  of  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America  in  this  respect. 
The  convention  promised  moral  support  to  the  Council  of  Free  Czechoslovakia  in 
its  efforts  to  restore  democracy  of  that  country  and  urged  relief  for  the  demo- 
cratic refugees  from  Czechoslovakia. 

The  native-born  generation  was  well  represented  at  a  convention  and  took 
a  prominent  part  in  its  deliberations. 


20  percent  of  college  students  expelled  from  schools 

Czechoslovakia  had,  in  1947, 18  schools  of  university  grade  with  55,000  students. 
Since  the  Communists  usurped  power  last  year,  more  than  11,000  students  have 
been  expelled  from  schools  and  compelled  to  give  up  further  studies. 

Strange  redefinition  of  democracy 

Speaking  at  the  convention  of  the  Czechoslovakian  writers  on  March  7th,  in 
Prague,  Dr.  Vaclav  Kopecky,  the  Minister  of  Information,  thus  defined  the  sub- 
stance and  aspects  of  the  so-called  People's  Democracy  now  ruling  Czechoslovakia  : 

"It  is  clear  to  us  even,  that  on  the  road  to  socialism,  the  People's  Democracy 
may  fulfill  the  function  of  a  dictatorship  of  the  Proletariat,  thus  becoming  one 
of  its  characteristic  forms." 


Hard  to  serve  neic  masters 

Since  February  1948,  70  percent  of  Czechoslovakian  Ambassadors,  Ministers  and 
Consuls,  have  either  resigned  or  been  recalled  to  Prague.  The  Communists 
divided  all  employees  of  the  Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs  into  three  categories: 
1.  Reliable  for  service  abroad,  2.  Reliable  for  service  in  Prague,  3.  Unreliable. 

"Order  of  February24" 

By  a  decree  of  the  government  of  Czechoslovakia,  a  new  "Order  of  the  24th  of 
February"  was  recently  Established.  It  will  be  awarded  to  individuals  for  deeds 
that  made  the  Communist  Coup  d'etat  possible.  The  Czechoslovakian  patriots 
welcome  the  official  list  of  these  undisputed  traitors  for  whom  it  will  be  hard 
indeed  to  find  excuses  when  the  day  of  retribution  will  arrive. 

Popular  car  at  unpopular  price 

The  Communist  Ministry  of  Internal  Commerce  announced  that  the  four  sets 
of  Skoda-Popular  automobile,  will  sell  at  the  "Free  market"  for  the  price  of 
450,000  korunas  (50  korunas  equal  1  dollar).  The  average  monthly  wages  of 
Czechoslovakian  workers  is  3,000  korunas. 

Tliought  police  in  action 

Several  Czech  priests  were  accused  of  delivering  sermons  containing  "hidden 
pronouncements  against  the  People's  Democratic  regime." 


The  Atlantic  Pact  Discussed  aboard  a  Streetcar 

The  conductors  in  the  streetcars  in  Prague  are  still  collecting  the  fare  by 
passing  among  the  passengers  and  selling  them  tickets.  It  happened  that  on 
the  morning  of  the  day  when  the  radio  announced  the  decision  of  Norway  to  join 
the  Atlantic  Pact  one  conductor  called  in  a  pitched  voice  as  soon  as  the  car 
left  the  stop  "Tickets !  Tickets !  Who  came  in  ?"  As  if  answering  a  question 
concerning  the  Atlantic  Pact,  uppermost  in  the  minds  of  all  of  that  time,  a  voice 
in  the  rear  gravely  informed  him  in  a  true  Shweik  style :  Norway ! 

All  passengers  laughed,  that  is,  all  with  the  exception  of  two  Communists  who 
called  in  the  policeman  at  the  next  stop  in  order  to  apprehend  the  "political 
provocator"'  who  had  publicly  manifested  his  sympathy  with  the  abominable 
Western  imperialism.    *    *    * 



The  fourth  edition  of  Progressive  Czech  by  Bohumil  Mikula  is  now  available. 
This  textbook  of  the  Czech  language  by  an  American  scholar,  was  published  by 
the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America,  and  is  being  used  in  American 
Universities,  colleges,  and  public  and  denominational  high  schools.  It  contains 
grammar,  reading  matter,  and  a  Czech-English  as  well  as  English-Czech  dic- 
tionary ;  578  pages,  price  $3.62  pp.  Send  your  orders  to  the  Czechoslovak  National 
Council  of  America,  2345  S.  Kedzie  Avenue,  Chicago  23,  111. 

(Published  by  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America,  2345  S.  Kedzie 
Avenue,  Chicago  23,  Illinois.    Subscription  price  $1.00  for  12  issues.) 

[Release  No.  4,  June  1949] 
If  Free  Elections  in  Greece  Why  Not  Also  in  Czechoslovakia? 

The  recent  offer  of  the  Greek  guerrilla  leaders,  for  liquidation  of  the  Civil  War 
in  Greece  on  the  basis  of  free  elections  under  the  supervision  of  the  United 
Nations  and  the  subsequent  approval  of  this  offer  by  the  Soviet  Union  opens  the 
way  for  similar  settlement  of  internal  troubles  elsewhere. 

If  free  elections  under  international  control  in  Greece  why  not  free  elections  in 
Czechoslovakia?  If  such  elections  can  be  used  to  liquidate  a  civil  war,  why 
not  use  them  to  prevent  a  civil  war? 

The  people  of  Czechoslovakia  are  clamoring  such  elections.  They  expressed 
their  will  recently  by  means  of  a  mass  letter-writing  campaign.    The  American 


Embassy  in  Prague  received  no  less  than  30,000  letters  demanding  such  elections, 
in  spite  of  all  obstacles  put  in  the  way  by  the  police  state. 

Heretofore  the  Communists  objected  to  international  supervision  of  such  elec- 
tions and  branded  it  as  unpermissible  intervention  in  the  internal  affairs  of  the 
countries  behind  the  "Iron  Curtain."  After  its  approval  in  the  Greek  case  there 
can  be  no  valid  objection  to  it  in  the  Czechoslovakian  case. 

The  Western  Allies  similarly  have  advocated  free  elections  under  the  supervi- 
sion of  the  United  Nations  and  extension  of  civil  liberties  to  the  people  of  Eastern 
Germany — and  rightly  so.  But  what  about  Czechoslovakia?  Certainly  the  people 
of  Czechoslovakia,  our  true  and  tried  Ally  in  two  world  wars,  deserve  some  con- 
sideration and  the  same  measure  of  rights  and  liberties  as  the  people  of  the 
nation  with  which  we  still  are  technically  at  war.  We  must  not  forget  further- 
more, that  Czechoslovakia  was  included  in  the  Eastern  zone  by  a  deal  among 
the  Big  Powers — without  being  consulted — and  that  our  country,  the  United 
States  of  America,  was  a  partner  to  this  deal.  Thus  we  have  a  certain  responsi- 
bility for  the  fate  of  Czechoslovakian  democracy,  a  responsibility  which  we  can- 
not avoid. 

The  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America  requested  the  United  btates 
delegation  at  the  conference  of  Four  Powers  in  Paris,  to  impress  the  conference 
with  tlie  necessity  of  giving  the  Czechoslovakian  people  a  chance  to  decide  their 
fate  by  free  elections  under  the  supervision  of  the  United  Nations.  This  demand 
should  be  fully  supported  by  all  fair-minded  citizens  interested  in  a  peaceful 
settlement  of  the  troubles  behind  the  Iron  Curtain. 

State-Contkolled  Church  Communist  Goal  in  Czechoslovakia 

The  Communist  assault  upon  Archbishop  Beran  and  the  Catholic  Church  in 
Czechoslovakia  is  reaching  its  climax.  At  the  time  our  readers  will  read  these 
lines,  the  Archbishop  probably  will  have  been  arrested. 

What  is  the  real  goal  of  the  Communist  regime  in  the  church  crisis  they  are 

Not  the  destruction  of  the  church  or  separation  of  the  church  from  the  state. 
The  Communists  have  learned  by  bitter  experience,  that  they  cannot  hope  to 
eradicate  religion  and  suppress  the  church  at  one  single  sweep.  They  have  not 
succeeded  in  this  in  the  Soviet  Union  after  30  years  of  their  absolute  rule.  They 
know  quite  well  they  cannot  achieve  this  goal  in  Central  Europe  nor  in  the  Bal- 
kans. For  this  reason  they  have  set  for  themselves  as  a  less  pretentious  goal,  not 
the  separation  of  church  from  the  state  but,  on  the  contrary,  the  establishment  of 
state-controlled  churches,  run  by  the  Communist  indoctrinated  Action-Committees 
in  the  same  way  as  they  run  all  non-Communist  organizations  which  are  still 
I)ermitted  to  exist. 

In  Czechoslovakia  they  have  already  succeeded  in  making  two  churches  fully 
subservient  to  their  rule,  namely,  the  small  Orthodox  church  which  was  placed  in 
addition  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Orthodox  Church  in  Tiloscow,  and  the 
National  Czechoslovak  Church,  which  broke  away  from  the  Rome  after  the  first 
World  War.  The  Roman  Catholic  Church  under  the  leadership  of  the  able  and 
extremely  popular  Archbishop  Beran  has  refused  so  far  to  listen  to  cajoling  and 
threats  and  is  now  a  subject  of  severe  persecution.  It  is  natural  to  assume  that  a 
similar  fate  will  soon  befall  the  Protestant  churches. 

The  Communists  tried  first  to  gain  favor  with  the  Catholic  Church  by  peaceful 
means  and  by  cajoling.  When  President  Gottwald  was  elected  to  the  oflice  made 
vacant  by  President  Benes,  he — an  avowed  atheist — attended  the  Mass,  served  by 
Archbishop  Beran  in  the  St.  Vitus  Cathedral  in  Prague.  Yet  in  the  same  cathe- 
dral, on  June  20,  Archbishop  Beran  was  silenced  by  jeers  of  Communist  provoca- 
tors  planted  among  the  faithful.     *     *     * 

Prepare  for  the  U.  S.  Census 

Next  year  a  general  census  will  be  taken  in  the  United  States. 

It  will  include  the  enumeration  of  members  of  different  nationalities  and  races, 
a  very  important  problem  in  a  country  where  so  many  different  races  live  side  by 

It  is  highly  desirable  that  the  census  taking  be  as  accurate  as  humanly  iwssible. 

An  accurate  census  may  help  us  to  straighten  up  many  mooted  questions. 
When  for  instance  a  claim  is  made  during  a  political  campaign — as  it  actually  was 
made  in  the  last  presidential  election — that  a  certain  nationality  commands  six 
million  votes  and  will  turn  them  a  certain  way,  it  will  be  readily  recognized  as  a 


gross  exaggeration  when  confronted  with  tlie  census  figures  according  to  which 
barely  two  and  one-half  millions  of  people  of  the  first,  second,  and  third  genera- 
tions, children  included,  were  enumerated  in  this  group. 

The  census  of  the  United  States  is  the  most  reliable  source  of  information 
about  many  pertinent  ingredients  in  our  melting  pot. 

This  does  not,  however,  mean  that  there  is  no  room  for  its  improvement. 

In  the  1940  Census  many  persons  of  Czech  origin  were  listed  as  Germans  simply 
because  at  that  time  Czechoslovakia  was — temporarily — a  part  of  Hitler's 
Greater  Germany.  ITiis  was  done  in  spite  of  the  correct  instructions  given  to  the- 
census  takers.  In  many  instances  these  instructions  were  not  followed.  In 
many  instances  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council  of  America  had  to  call  the 
attention  of  the  authorities  to  a  violation  of  these  instructions. 

There  is  a  danger  that  the  Communist  coup  d'etat  in  Czechoslovakia  last  year 
and  the  anti-American  policies  of  the  present  Communist  government  of  Czecho- 
slovakia may  lead  to  similar  misunderstandings.  We  all  can  help  by  convincing 
our  fellow  citizens  that  they  should  answer  the  questionnaire  correctly  and  make- 
sure  that  tlie  census  takers  accurately  follow  given  instructions. 

The  Slovak  National  Alliance  of  America  Reokganized 

The  Slovak  National  Alliance  of  America  held  its  national  conference  at  New 
York,  on  June  1949.  It  was  attended  by  delegates  from  New  York.  New  Jersey^ 
the  New  England  States,  Pennsylvania,  and  Illinois.  The  conference  unani- 
mously decided  to  continue  its  affiliation  with  the  Czechoslovak  National  Council 
of  America,  in  Chicago ;  to  give  moral  support  to  the  Council  of  Free  Czecho- 
slovakia in  Washington  in  its  efforts  to  free  Czechoslovakia  from  the  yoke  of 
totalitarianism ;  and  to  extend  aid  to  the  democratic  refugees  from  the  Com- 
munist dominated  Czechoslovakia  Ijy  supporting  tlie  American  Fund  for  Czecho- 
slovak Refugees. 

The  Slovak  National  Alliance  was  formed  in  1939  and  has  become  one  of  the 
component  parts  of  the  Czeclioslovak  National  Council  of  America.  Contrary 
to  the  older  organization,  The  Slovak  League,  which  supported  the  Nazi  puppet 
government  in  Slovakia,  the  Alliance  worked  steadfastly  for  the  restitution  of 
democratic  Czechoslovak  Repultlic. 

The  present  officers  of  the  Alliance  are :  Andrew  Valnsek,  of  New  York,  presi- 
dent ;  John  Golosinec,  of  Chicago,  and  Anna  Noehto.  of  New  York,  vice  presidents  ; 
John  Drahos,  of  New  York,  secretary.  The  headquarters  of  the  Alliance  will 
remain  in  New  York  City. 

A  Monument  to  T.  G.  Masaryk  To  Be  Erected  in  Chicago 

The  celebration  of  the  one  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  birth  of  Thomas  G, 
Masaryk,  to  be  held  in  1950,  will  actually  begin  tliis  fall.  A  monument  honoring 
the  great  leader  of  Czechoslovakia  and  world  democracy  will  be  erected  at  the 
entrance  of  the  University  of  Chicago.  (In  his  professorial  days  Masaryk  was 
a  member  of  the  staff  of  this  university.)  The  statue,  the  work  of  the  noted 
Czechoslovak-American  sculptor,  Albin  Polasek,  formerly  of  the  Chicago  Art 
Institute,  will  be  dedicated  on  or  around  October  28,  the  Czechoslovak  Independ- 
ence Day.  The  date  was  cliosen  purposely  as  that  holiday  was  replaced  by  the 
new  Communist  regime  in  Czechoslovakia  with  Noveml)er  7.  the  anniversary  of 
the  Bolshevik  revolution  in  Russia.  The  Chicago  event  is,  therefore,  planned  as 
a  mighty  demonstration  against  the  totalitaria^n  regime  in  Prague  which  tram- 
pled down  the  ideals  of  the  great  founder  of  the  Czechoslovakian  democracy. 

The  Masaryk  Memorial  Committee,  which  is  sponsoring  this  celebration,  was 
organized  by  the  late  John  Toman,  their  county  treasurer  of  Cook  County,  Illi- 
nois, before  the  Second  World  War.  The  war  interrupted  the  work  of  this  com- 
mittee. The  necessary  funds  were  badly  needed  for  the  movement  to  liberate 
Masaryk's  country  from  the  Nazis  and  later  on,  immediately  after  the  war,  there 
was  even  more  pressing  need  for  the  alleviation  of  the  suffering  caused  by  the 
ravages  of  war  and  by  tlie  Nazi  occupation  of  Czechoslovakia. 

The  Masaryk  Memorial  Committee  is  headed  by  Mr.  John  A.  Cervenka,  former 
city  purchasing  agent  in  Chicago.  Mr.  Charles  M.  Prchal  is  secretary  of  the 


Sad  News  From  the  Old  Country 

economic  war  between  czechoslovakia  and  yugoslavia 

The  Czeclioslovak  government  orderecl  in  Jnne  a  ban  on  all  Czechoslovakian 
exports  to  Yugoslavia.  It  was  pushed  into  an  economic  war  with  this  Slavic 
country  by  Moscow,  which  is  trying  to  organize  an  economic  blockade  of  Yugo- 
slavia.' Thus  Czechoslovakia  is  being  deprived  of  one  of  the  best  outlets  for  its 
goods  and  at  the  same  time  is  being  cut  off  from  a  very  important  source  of  raw 
material  for  its  industries.  This  is  the  second  time  that  Russia  caused  irrepara- 
ble economic  loss  to  Czechoslovakia  for  reasons  of  her  own.  In  1947  Stalin  forced 
Czechoslovakia  to  withdraw  from  the  Marshall  plan  although  even  the  Commu- 
nist ministers  in  Benes'  cabinet  originally  voted  for  it. 


The  new  regime  of  Czechoslovakia  is  tightening  the  screws  ever  more.  Secret 
tribunals  are  pronouncing  sentences  of  death  and  executions  of  patriots  daily. 
Death  sentences  were  pronounced  in  the  trials  of  the  Liska  and  Choc  groups. 
The  most  glaring  example  of  the  Communist  "justice"  is  the  recent  execution 
of  Gen.  Heliodor  Pika.  One  of  his  "crimes"  was— as  quoted  by  the  Daily 
Woi-ker — that  he  established  connection  with  the  British  Intelligence  Service  in 
Britain  in— 1940.  At  that  time  Moscow  had  a  pact  with  Hitler  and  Mr.  Moloto\ 
was  dining  lavishly  with  Yon  Ribbentrop. 


To  be  sentenced  to  jail  is  no  insurance  against  death  by  torture  in  Communist- 
dominated  Czechoslovakia.  The  latest  victims  are  General  Janousek  and  Colonel 
Lukas,  who  died  very  soon  after  their  incarceration.  Both  served  with  the 
British  Air  P'orce  during  the  war.  Both  were  eliminated  and  liquidated  as 


The  number  of  suicides  for  political  reasons  are  increasing  in  a  horrible 
way.  The  most  significant  case  recently  discovered  is  that  of  Prof.  Autonin 
Yosicka,  well  known  in  this  country,  who  obtained  his  doctor's  degree  at  the 
Northwestern  University  in  Chicago.  Yosicka,  a  lecturer  of  English  at  the 
Charles  University  in  Prague,  was  made  despondent  by  the  Communist  inter- 
ference in  his  teaching  and  by  suppression  of  three  of  his  books  by  the  Ministry 
of  Information.  The  new  constitution  of  Czechoslovakia  provides  "guarantee" 
of  freedom  of  scientific  research,  but  apparently  that  is  pure  window  dressing. 


When  President  Gottwald  was  installed  last  year  an  amnesty  was  declared. 

The  purpose  of  it  evidently  was  to  make  room  for  new  prisoners.  Today  there 
are  between  60,000-75,000  patriots  in  the  jails.  The  number  of  those  who  were 
sent  to  the  Forced  Labor  Camps  runs  into  hundreds  of  thousands. 

masaeyk's  words  came  teue 

Two  months  before  he  died,  Jan  Masaryk  warned  his  fellow  countrymen  in  a 
speech  delivered  at  Brno  University  that  a  disi'uption  of  relations  with  the  West 
would  result  in  drastic  lowering  of  standard  of  life  in  Czechoslovakia.  His 
words  came  true.  Even  the  Commmiist  daily  "Rude  Pravo"  admits  that  the 
average  wages  have  fallen  from  3,000  Kcs.  to  2,500  Kcs.  At  the  same  time  a 
suit  of  clothes  costs  from  10,000  Kcs.  to  20,000  Kcs.  ( .$200-$300 ) . 


830  South  Fifth  Street.     Established  1913.     Phone  Mitchell  5-4373 


Publishers  of  the 

"Obzob" — {The  American^Yugoslav  Observer) 

A  Weekly  News  Publication  for  Americans  of  Yugoslav  Descent  in  Wisconsin 

Frank  R.  Stadt,  editor  and  publisher 

Presenting  also  the  American- Yugoslav  (Slovenian)  Radio  Hoxjb  Oveb  WEXT 

Radio  Station 

Milwaukee  4,  Wis.,  June  29, 1949. 

Hon.  John  S.  Wood, 

Chairman,  House  Commitee  on  Un-American  Activities, 

Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Me.  Chairman  :  In  New  York  Times  of  June  2G,  1949,  on  page  1,  section  1, 
and  on  page  34,  column  3,  I  read  the  latest  official  report  of  your  Committee 
on  Un-American  Activities  of  the  American  Slav  Congress,  and  to  my  great 
astonishment  found  the  name  of  my  paper,  the  "Yugoslovenski  Obzor,  Milwau- 
kee," listed  among  the  "organizations  actively  associated  with  the  American 
Slav  Congress." 

I  don't  know  how  did  it  happen  that  our  paper  was  included  among  these  organ- 
izations, while,  by  right,  it  should  be  listed  among  the  loyal  ones,  but  I  presume 
that  your  Committee,  by  all  probability,  found  the  name  of  my  paper  on  the 
official  mailing  list  of  the  American  Slav  Congress,  which,  during  the  war  years 
and  after,  bombarded  every  Slavic-language  newspaper  in  this  country,  includ- 
ing ours,  with  its  communistic  propaganda  and  literature.  This  propaganda 
stuff  kept  coming  to  my  desk  from  the  American  Slav  Congress  despite  my  fre- 
quent demands  that  they  strike  the  name  of  our  paper  off  their  mailing  list. 
Only  a  few  months  ago  they  finally  stopped  sending  me  their  traitorous  litera- 
ture, which— needless  to  say — promptly  wandered  into  the  wastebasket  anyhow 
as  soon  as  it  arrived. 

Or,  maybe,  your  Committee  found  the  name  of  our  paper — or  rather  my 
name,  as  its  editor  and  publisher — among  the  organizers  of  Local  Milwaukee 
branch  of  American  Slav  Congress  (at  that  time,  and  still  called  the  American 
Slav  Council  of  Milwaukee  County)  back  in  1942,  when  its  goals  and  purposes 
were  purely  patriotic  and  the  Communists  did  not  have  any  control  of  it,  and 
from  which  I  and  the  rest  of  anticommunistic  organizers  one  year  later,  when 
the  Communists  in  their  usual  trickery  way  got  control  of  the  majority  votes 
at  the  executive  meetings,  promptly  withdrew. 

I  am  enclosing  2  sets  of  original  clippings  from  local  newspapers  about  my 
activities  during  the  war  years  and  after.  I  beg  you,  Mr.  Chairman,  to  return 
these  clippings  to  me  after  you  take  notice  of  them,  as  they  are  the  only  ones 
I  have  and  would  like  to  preserve  them  in  my  files  for  eventual  future  references. 

I  may  also  add  that  for  these  activities  and  for  my  strongly  anticommunistic 
stand  and  editorial  policy  of  my  paper  during  the  dangerous  period  of  appease- 
ment of  Russia  and  its  satellites,  and  of  my  lone  fighting  against  communistic 
propaganda  among  my  people,  I  was  often  threatened  with  death  and  destruction 
of  my  printing  plant  and  property  by  local  Communists — which  facts  are  well 
known  to  the  local  FBI  oflice  ( at  least  they  were  promptly  reported  by  me  to  its 
agents).  You  will,  Mr.  Chairman,  therefore  understand  that  I  was  the  more 
surprised  to  find  the  name  of  my  paper  listed  among  the  suspected  organizations. 

I  hope,  Mr.  Chairman,  that  your  Committee  will  find  some  way  of  correcting 
this  injustice  to  me  and  my  paper. 
Respectfully  yours, 

Frank  R.  Staitt, 
Editor  and  Publisher  of  "Yugoslovenski  Obzor." 

Enclosure :  2  sets  of  newspaper  clippings,  kindly  to  be  returned. 


[Milwaukee  Journal,  April  26,  1949] 

Slav  Congress  Forces  Broken  by  Split  in  1943 

group  here  reduced  to  small  number  when  foes  of  communism  walked  out 

The  American  Slav  Congress,  which  is  being  investigated  by  the  House  Un- 
American  Activities  Committee  as  a  Communist  "front"  organization,  is  only 
a  skeleton  of  its  former  self  here. 

It  remains  the  central  governing  body  of  a  doz^en  or  so  left-wing  nationality 
organizations  among  Milwaukeeans  of  Slavic  descent.  Its  present  over-all  mem- 
bership here  is  only  a  few  thousands. 

Six  years  ago  the  American  Slav  Congress  was  a  major  organization  in  the 
city's  life.  It  had  about  90  affiliated  societies  among  the  Poles,  Czechs,  Slo- 
vaks, Slovenes,  Serbs,  Russians,  and  Ukrainians.  It  i-epresented  nearly  75,000 

But  a  majority  of  the  Milwaukee  members  of  the  congress  long  ago  recognized 
it  as  a  Communist  "front"  organization  and  withdrew.  The  testimony  that 
is  being  offered  in  Washington,  D.  C,  now  to  prove  the  organization's  Com- 
munist connections  is  nothing  new  to  these  Milwaukeeans. 

Krzycki  Is  President 

The  national  president  of  the  congress  for  a  number  of  years  has  been  Leo 
Krzycki,  3360  S.  37th  St.  He  attended  the  Communist-dominated  world  peace 
meeting  in  Paris  last  week  as  a  delegate  of  the  congress  and  is  now  on  his  way 
to  Poland. 

In  recent  years  officers  of  the  local  group  have  consistently  been  "Russia 
firsters."  Paul  Babich,  an  important  figure  in  the  Communist  Party  in  Wis- 
consin, has  been  the  treasurer  for  years.  Other  congress  leaders,  all  out- 
spokenly pro-Soviet,  have  been  Mrs.  Josephine  Nordstrand,  the  Communist 
Party's  principal  "front"  organizer  in  the  state ;  Mrs.  Bozina  Klabouch ;  Ed- 
mund V.  Bobrowicz,  Democratic  nominee  for  congress  in  1946  who  was  re- 
pudiated by  the  Democratic  Party  as  a  Communist,  and  Louis  Majtan  and  John 

IWO  Nmv  Is  Backbone 

Since  1943,  when  about  75  of  90  affiliated  societies  withdrew  from  the  con- 
gress, the  backbone  of  the  organization  has  been  in  the  International  Workers' 
order  chapters  in  the  various  nationality  groups.  The  order  is  the  fraternal 
insurance  society  of  the  Communist  Party. 

The  local  chapters  include  the  Solidarity  club,  a  Polish  IWO  affiliate,  the 
Ukrainian-American  lodge  No.  1534  and  Croat,  Czech,  Serb,  and  Slovak  affiliates. 

A  few  of  the  Serb  and  Croat  members  who  remained  with  the  congress  after 
the  big  split  in  1943  recently  have  severed  their  connections.  They  were  pro- 
Tito,  and  the  Yugoslav  dictator's  differences  with  Russia  left  them  puzzled. 

The  last  public  meeting  of  the  congress  was  in  March  at  the  South  Side 
Armory,  1620  S.  6th  St.  At  that  time,  the  congress,  with  the  Wisconsin  Civil 
Rights  congress,  another  Communist  "front"  organization,  sponsored  by  the 
appearance  here  of  Mrs.  Katherine  Ilyndman,  of  Gary,  Ind.  Mrs.  Hyndman  has 
been  arrested  for  deportation  for  her  Communist  activities.  She  is  now  free  on 

Meet  at  Harmony  Hall 

Regular  meetings  of  the  congress  are  held  at  Harmony  Hall,  939  S.  6th  street. 

Frank  E.  Gregorski,  a  former  assistant  district  attorney,  was  the  president 
of  the  local  American  Slav  congress  before  the  1943  break-up.  He  led  67  Polish 
organizations,  which  were  also  members  of  the  Pulaski  council,  out  of  the 

"We  intended  to  oust  the  Communists  and  reorganize  the  central  body  for 
ourselves,  but  they  got  the  jump  on  us,"  Gregorski  said.  "They  went  to  Madison 
and  incorporated,  and  then  we  were  denied  the  right  to  use  the  name." 

Gregorski  explained  that  the  split  came  as  a  result  of  a  national  convention 
of  the  congress  in  Detroit  in  1943.  The  national  body  went  on  record  approving 
Russian  absorption  of  Poland  and  the  Baltic  states  and  Tito's  ascendency  in 

The  rupture  here  came  soon  after  the  Detroit  meeting.  At  a  local  meeting 
a  large  map  was  placed  on  a  wall.  It  showed  a  post-World  War  II  Soviet 
Europe.  A  resolution  condemning  the  Milwaukee  chapter  of  the  Council  of 
American-Soviet  Friendship  for  displaying  the  map  was  passed  at  the  meeting. 


Forming  a  "New  World" 

Mrs.  Nordstrand,  who  was  a  "labor"  delegate  to  the  congi-ess,  told  Gregorski 
and  his  group  that  they  "shouldn't  be  excited  about  such  things  as  maps  and 

Babich  told  the  Polish  delegates  that  "a  new  world  is  being  formed,  and  we 
won't  care  about  you." 

The  IWO  groups,  Babich's  Serbian  Democratic  club  and  the  left  wing 
American-Polish  labor  council  quickly  passed  resolutions  condemning  the  with- 
drawal of  the  Polish  delegates  who  sided  with  Gregorski. 

Since  that  break-up,  although  the  congress  has  held  meetings  here  regularly, 
it  has  come  to  public  attention  on  only  a  few  occasions. 

Once  was  when  Atty.  Gen.  Tom  C.  Clark  listed  the  congress  and  many 
of  its  remaining  affiliates  as  "subversive"  and  as  Communist  "front"  groups. 

And  now  it  is  the  congressional  investigation  in  Washington  tiiat  promises  to 
spotlight  the  organization's  activities. 

[The  Milwaukee  Journal,  July  4,  1948] 

City  Yugoslavs  Eye  Homeland 

most  abe  opposed  to  tito  and  to  communism,  editor  says 

Milwaukee's  40,000  persons  of  Yugoslav  descent  are  watching  with  interest 
and  anxiety  the  events  in  their  homeland. 

What  is  behind  the  condemnation  of  Communist  Tito  by  international  com- 
munism? And  what  will  this  mean  to  their  Croatian,  Slovenian,  and  Serbian 
relatives  abi-oad?  These  are  the  questions  that  Milwaukee  Yugoslavs  are 

Most  Croats,  Slovenes,  and  Serbs  living  in  America  have  been  unalterably 
opposed  to  Tito  and  his  Communist  regime  from  the  beginning,  according  to 
Frank  R.  Staut,  editor  of  the  Slovenian  newspaper  Obzor. 

"The  Slovenes  are  a  democratic  people  and  we  are  opposed  to  any  form  of 
dictatorship  and  to  communism,"  Staut  said.  "A  Tito-run  Communist  dictator- 
ship is  no  better  than  a  Moscow-run  dictatorship." 

Religion  Is  a  Factor 

The  Slovenes  comprise  about  20,000  of  Milwaukee's  Yugoslav  population,  the 
Croats  about  15,000,  and  the  Serbs  about  5,000,  Staut  said. 

The  majority  of  these  were  born  in  Europe  or  are  generation  Americans 
and  it  is  for  that  reason  that  their  ties  to  their  native  land  are  especially  strong. 
The  Croats  and  the  Slovenes  are  largely  Roman  Catholic.  The  Serbians  belong 
to  the  Serbian  Orthodox  church.  It  is  partially  because  of  their  deep  religious 
convictions  that  their  opposition  to  Tito  developed,  Staut  said. 

Father  Blase  Jerkovic,  of  St.  Augustine's  Catholic  Church,  was  outspoken  on 
that  point. 

"Tito  is  against  all  religion  and  the  Yugoslav  people  will  never  support  him," 
he  said. 

Denies  Tito  is  a  Croat 

Although  biographies  list  Tito  as  a  Croat  whose  real  name  is  Josip  Broz, 
Father  Jerkovic  strongly  denied  that  Tito  is  a  Croat. 

"I  have  parishioners  from  the  area  where  he  is  said  to  have  been  born  and 
they  never  heard  of  his  family  there,"  Father  Jerkovic  said.  He  charged  that 
Tito  is  an  oppressor  of  all  Yugoslav  people  but  especially  of  the  religious  Croats. 
He  said  the  great  majority  of  all  Americans  of  Yugoslav  descent  would  never 
be  satisfied  until  Tito  and  all  Communists  are  removed  from  control. 

An  opposite  view  of  the  esteem  in  which  Yugoslav  Americans  hold  Tito  was 
expressed  by  Nick  Hinich,  president  of  the  left-wing  American  Croatian  council. 

"There  are  only  a  few  loud-mouthed  individuals  in  this  country  who  condemn 
him,"  Hinich  said.  "Most  of  the  Yugoslavs  here  and  in  Europe  have  been 
strongly  in  favor  of  Tito  from  the  beginning." 

"Not  Forming  Opinion" 

But  Hinich  hedged  somewhat  when  asked  whether  the  high  regard  in  which 
he  said  Tito  was  held  was  likely  to  be  changed  by  the  Comiuform's  attack  on 
the  Yugoslav  leadei". 


"Our  people  are  not  forming  any  final  opinion  yet,"  he  declared.  "All  we  have 
^re  the  newspaper  stories  and  they  may  be  twisted.  I  don't  think  the  break  is 
iis  serious  as  the  newspapers  state." 

Hinich  doubted  that  there  would  be  any  reorientation  of  Yugoslavia  toward 
the  United  States.  Britain,  and  other  western  nations  unless  "the  west  gives  up 
its  policies  of  ownership  of  resources  and  exploitation  of  tlie  people." 

Phillip  Paiiliu,  president  of  tlie  Croatian  Central  committee,  said  that  liis 
•organization  represented  95  percent  of  the  Croats  in  Milwaukee  and  that  Hinich's 
group  represented  "only  a  handful  of  pro-Communists." 

■Slaying  Held  Possible 

"Tito  and  his  Communist  government  are  maintained  by  force  and  fear," 
Paulin  said.  '"Your  Americans  of  Croatian  descent  don't  like  communism  in 
any  form." 

Although  it  is  too  early  for  conjecture  as  to  what  will  happen  as  a  result  of  the 
Belgrade-Moscow  break,  Paulin  said  it  was  possible  that  Tito  would  be  slain  as 
were  Leon  Trotsky  and  other  Stalin  opponents. 

"But  the  situation  then  is  not  likely  to  be  any  better,  and  it  may  be  worse," 
he  added.  "Communist  control  seems  to  be  too  strong  to  be  overthrown 

[Milwaukee  Journal,  September  4,  1946] 
From  Yugoslav  Editor 
To  the  Journal : 

The  lessons  in  your  editorial  "Our  Defenders  of  Tito"  in  reply  to  a  state- 
ment of  "25  or  more  directors"  of  the  American  Slav  Council  of  Milwaukee 
County  and  the  central  committee  of  South  Slavic  Americans,  which  appeared 
in  your  news  columns  under  the  heading  "Slavs  Here  Rap  Yugoslavia  Issue," 
certainly  should  be  helpful  in  opening  the  eyest  of  a  considerable  number  of 
Milwaukee  Slavs,  especially  Yugoslavs,  who  had  been — to  quote  your  words — 
"misled  by  old  world  nationalistic  feelings  or  else  duped  by  the  American  agents 
of  Russian  communism."  But  I  otter  a  little  clarification,  especially  in  regard 
to  the  unfounded  claim  of  "25  directors"  that  they  represent  51  Slavic 
member  organizations,  apparently  meaning  the  organizations  in  Milwaukee  area. 

As  publisher  of  the  local  Yugoslav  newspaper,  I  am  in  position  to  state  that 
this  is  not  true  or  else  the  25  directors  should  publish  the  names  of  these  51 
organizations.  As  far  as  I  know,  these  "directors"  in  fact  have  a  few  individual 
followers,  who  may  belong  to  some  of  these  51  organizations  as  individual  mem- 
bers, using  them  as  their  tools  and  agitators  in  collecting  donations  for  "war 
relief  to  Yugoslav  people."  But  none  of  these  organizations  (at  least  none  of 
the  3S  Slovenian  organizations  in  this  area)  to  my  knowledge  ever  officially 
•endorsed  or  approved  tlie  frequent  anti-American  and  pro-Tito  statements,  which 
these  25  directors  have  issued  in  your  or  the  other  American  papers,  thus  making 
the  impression  that  All  Yugoslavs  here  are  100%  behind  them  and  against  the 
American  interests  or  the  form  of  American  government. 

Yes.  blame  for  misleading  the  Slavs  here  must  be  placed  on  your  shoulders, 
because  of  some  of  your  willingness  to  publish  any  "statement"  and  any  propa- 
ganda for  Tito  or  Russian  communism  these  Slav  directors  are  sending  to  your 
desks,  thus  planting  in  the  mind  of  the  average  Slav  reader  the  thought  that, 
after  all,  Tito  or  Russian  communism  cannot  be  so  bad  when  even  the  Ameiican 
papers  are  printing  such  favorable  statements  and  stories  for  both.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  general  American  public  gets  the  impression  that  all  the  Slavs  are— 
in  secret — Communists  and  ready  to  turn  against  this  country  any  moment  they 
get  their  orders  from  Moscow. 

I  can  assure  you  that  the  great  majority  of  Yugoslavs  here  really  are  loyal 
Americans,  concerned  entirely  with  the  interests  of  their  adopted  land.  And 
they  are  thankful  to  you  for  saying  so  and  bringing  this  out.  The  great  majority 
do  not  try — whether  in  their  hearts  or  openly — to  whitewash  Tito  or  his  present 
regime  in  Yugoslavia  for  shooting  down  American  fliers.  On  the  contrary,  they 
are  condemning  this  foolish  (if  it  were  not  so  tragic)  act  of  his  soldiers.  They 
just  feel  the  more  sorry  for  the  innocent  and  unfortunate  Yugoslav  people  abroad, 
who  have  suffered  so  much  during  the  war,  have  hoped  all  these  years  that  they 
would  be  really  liberated  by  Anglo-Americans  and  benefited  by  western  democ- 
i-acy  after  their  liberation,  but  instead  have  fallen  under  another  slavery  and 
dictatorship,  which  threatens  to  drag  them  into  another  war. 


We  know  our  people  in  the  old  country  and  we  know  that  they  don't  want  to 
have  Russian  communism  imposed  on  them  any  more  than  the  Americans  would 
want  it.  And  they  are  therefore  unhappy  to  think  that  some  day  they  might  be 
forced  to  fight  against  us. 

If  people  of  Yugoslavia  are  throwing  up  their  caps  and  shouting  for  Tito 
today,  as  you  said  in  another  editorial,  "Getting  Kicked,"  they  are  not  doing 
that  because  they  are  ungrateful  to  the  United  States  for  UNRRA  goods  they 
are  receiving,  but  because  they  have  to  do  that  or  else  they  won't  get  them. 

It's  still  the  same  old  story  in  Europe :  Before,  tliere  were  kings  and  kaisers. 
The  people  formerly  had  to  shout  for  them.    Now  for  the  marshals. 

Frank  R.  Staut, 
Editor  and  Publisher,  the  Obi^or  (The  Yugoslav  Observer), 

820  S.  5th  Street,  MiUoaiikee. 

[Milwaukee  Journal,  Sept.  24,  1946] 
Slovenians  Organize  To  Block  Communists 

About  30  representatives  of  Slovenian  groups  in  the  city,  principally  those 
affiliated  with  the  Slovenian  Catholic  union,  Monday  night  organized  an  associa- 
tion which  they  said  hoped  to  combat  any  attempt  by  Communists  to  infiltrate 
into  their  organizations.  They  adopted  the  name  of  American  Slav  Alliance  for 
Upholding  American  Democracy,  Slovenian  branch.  The  meeting  was  held  at 
St.  John  the  Evangelist  Catholic  church  hall,  S.  9th  and  W.  Mineral  Sts. 

"We  hope  that  other  nationality  groups  will  form  similar  organizations,"  said 
Frank  R.  Staut. 

Frank  Lipoglavsek,  3601  W.  Burnham  St.,  was  elected  temporary  chairman ; 
Frank  Slatinshek,  81.5  S.  5th  St.,  vice  chairman  ;  Joseph  Luzar,  Jr.,  1010  S.  9th 
St.,  treasurer,  and  Miss  Agnes  Jenich,  1231  W.  Mineral  St.,  recording  secretary. 
The  group's  next  meeting  will  be  held  Oct.  28. 

[Milwaukee  Sentinel,  Sept.  25,  1946] 
Slovenes  Here  To  Fight  Communism 

A  group  of  Milwaukee  Slovenes  has  organized  to  block  Communism,  it  was  an- 
nounced yesterday  by  Frank  R.  Staut,  editor  and  publisher  of  a  Slovenian  lan- 
guage newspaper.  "The  name  American  Slav  Alliance  For  Upholding  American 
Democracy-Slovenian  Branch,  was  adopted.  Tiiese  officers  were  elected :  Frank 
Lipoglavsek,  president ;  Frank  Slatinshek,  vice  president ;  Joseph  Luzar,  Jr., 
treasurer,  and  Miss  Agnes  Jenich,  secretary. 

Congress  of  the  United  States, 

House  of  Representatives, 
Wushingtan,  D.  C,  July  6,  1949. 
Mr.  Frank  R.  Staut, 

Editor  and  Publisher,  Obzor, 

830  South  Fifth  Street,  Milwaukee  4,  Wis. 
Dear  Mr.  Staut  :  Reference  is  made  to  your  letter  of  June  29  witli  respect  to 
the  inclusion  by  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  of  both  you  and  your 
paper,  Obzor,  on  the  list  of  persons  or  organizations  actively  associated  with 
the  American  Slav  Congress. 

The  Committee,  in  preparing  its  report  on  the  American  Slav  Congress,  well 
realized  that  certain  persons  and  organizations  had  withdrawn  from  association 
with  the  American  Slav  Congress.  Certain  of  these  were  given  credit  in  the 
publication  and  in  a  footnote  the  Committee  stated :  "It  is  possible  that  there 
are  other  such  cases  which  have  not  been  brought  to  the  attention  of  the  com- 
mittee." The  information  received  by  the  Committee  since  the  publication  of 
its  report  conclusively  shows  that  you  and  your  publication  for  some  years  have 
been  actively  combatting  the  Communist  movement,  especially  the  infiltration  of 
Commimists  into  foreign  nationality  groups  within  the  Wisconsin  area. 

I  extend  to  you  the  congratulations  of  the  Committee  for  the  fine  job  you  and 
your  publication  are  doing  to  bring  a  true  light  of  the  Communist  conspiracy  to 
the  attention  of  your  people. 
Sincerely  yours, 

John  S.  Wood,  Chairman. 



Polsko-Amektkanska  Rada  Pbact 

Telephone  Walnut  1-S192 

2063  E.  GRAND  BLVD.,  DETROIT  11,  MICH. 

Officers  :  Fr.  Ostrowski,  president ;  A.  Arciszewski,  vice  president ;  J.  K.  Wieczorek,  vice 
president ;  Jan  Groom,  vice  president ;  Anthony  Wojsowski,  general  secretary ;  Bol. 
Tomaszewski,  treasurer  ;  J.  D.  Wlodarczyk,  organizer.  Directors  :  Anthony  Krawulski, 
Leon  liusinowicz,  Jan  Artykiewicz,  Ign.  Piekarniak 

May  10,  1949. 

The  Honorable  John  S.  Wood, 

Chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities, 
U.  8.  House  of  Representatives,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Dear  Mr.  Chairman  :  General  Modelski,  testifying  before  the  Subcommittee  of 
the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on  March  11,  1949,  referred  to  a  docu- 
ment which  was  introduced  in  the  minutes  as  Exhibit  I.  The  English  translation 
of  this  document  contains  an  error  namely,  it  refers  to  a  Polish  American  Labor 
Council,  while  in  the  original  Polish  document  the  name  of  the  organization 
mentioned,  is  American  Polish  Labor  Council. 

Our  organization,  the  Polish  American  Labor  Council  is  and  always  was  very 
strongly  opposed  to  communism.  Our  aim  is  to  enlighten  the  workers  of  Polish 
descent  about  tlie  danger  of  communism. 

The  communists  organized  the  American  Polish  Labor  Council  to  counteract  the 
activities  of  our  organization  and  to  confuse  the  public.  Mr.  Leon  Krzycki,  the 
president  of  the  communist  dominated  American  Polish  Labor  Council,  is  not 
and  never  was  in  any  way  connected  with  our  organization,  the  Polish  American 
Labor  Council. 

Since  the  testimony  of  General  Modelski  was  widely  publicized  and  in  that 
connection  the  name  of  our  organization  was  mentioned  as  being  subversive,  we 
would  be  very  grateful  for  a  correction  of  the  translation  of  Exhibit  I  and  an 
appropriate  statement  with  regard  to  that  matter. 
Very  truly  yours, 

Frank  Ostrowski,  President. 
Anthony  Wojsowski,  Gen.  Sec. 

Note. — The  following  footnote,  included  in  the  Report  on  the  American  Slav 
Congress,  p.  17,  with  reference  to  the  above  organization ;  is  for  the  clarification 
of  tlie  record : 

"In  a  publication  of  the  committee,  containing  the  testimony  of  Gen.  Izyador 
Modelski,  former  Military  Attache  of  the  Polish  Embassy  in  Washington,  D.  C, 
reference  was  made  to  the  Polish-American  Labor  Council  as  being  a  suitable 
contact  for  employees  of  the  Polish  Embassy.  The  organization  to  which  this 
publication  intended  to  refer  was  the  American-Polish  Labor  Council  and  not  the 
Polish-American  Labor  Council,  tiie  Polish-American  Labor  Council  being  a 
thoroughly  loyal  and  patriotic  organization.  This  mistake  was  the  result  of  an 
error  made  by  the  translator  of  certain  documents  turned  over  to  the  Committee 
by  General  ^Modelski.  The  organization  referred  to  above  (i.  e.,  in  the  Report 
on  the  American  Slav  Congress)  as  the  American-Polish  Labor  Council  is  men- 
tioned in  this  report  upon  numerous  occasions.  This  organization,  it  is  hoped, 
will  not  become  confused  with  the  loyal  organization  identified  in  this  statement 
as  the  Polish-American  Labor  Council." 

Institute  for  Research  in  Social  Science, 

The  University  of  North  Carolina, 

Chai)el  Hill,  December  3,  I9.'f9. 
The  Honorable  John  S.  Wood, 

Chairman,  Un-American  Affairs  Committee, 

House  of  Representatives,  Washington,  D.  C. 
My  Dear  Congressman  Wood  :  I  have  been  informed  that  the  Un-American 
Affairs  Committee,  in  its  report  concerning  the  Culture  and  Scientific  Con- 
ference for  World  Peace,  which  was  held  in  New  York  last  March  25-27,  has 
stated  that  I  was  a  sponsor  of  the  conference,  and  appeared  on  the  program. 
Simply  in  order  to  keep  the  record  straight,  I  should  like  to  state  the  facts  so 
that  there  will  be  no  misunderstanding. 


I  was  never  a  sponsor  of  the  conference,  and  I  publicly  withdrew  from  the 
program  on  March  22,  stating  my  reasons  quite  emphatically.  The  fact  that 
I  had  refused  to  appear  on  the  program  was  reported  in  a  front-page  story 
in  the  New  York  Times  in  its  edition  of  iNIarch  '2~t.  1!)4!>.  and  also  in  a  first-page 
story  in  Newsweek,  page  19,  in  its  editi(m  of  April  4,  1949.  Also,  my  letter  of 
withdrawal  was  printed  in  full  by  the  Durham  Morning  Herald,  Durham.  N.  C, 
under  date  of  March  I'JT.  1949,  and  a  copy  of  the  same  letter  was  addressed  to 
the  Secretary  of  State  and  may  be  found  in  the  State  Department  file.  In  this 
letter  stating  why  I  could  not  associate  myself  with  the  program  I  made  the 
following  comment  which,  I  believe,  makes  my  position  clear. 

"As  regards  my  own  position,  I  am  on  the  whole  a  suppoi'ter  of  the  policy 
of  the  State  Department  in  the  postwar  period.  In  my  opinion,  our  international 
polic.v  has  been  much  moi-e  conducive  to  world  peace  and  to  the  settlement 
of  outstanding  points  at  issue  than  have  been  the  policy  and  actions  of  the- 
Soviet  Union.  Although  I  feel  that  the  objectives  and  the  technique  of  the 
United  States  in  foreign  affairs  can  be  at  times  improved,  my  opinions  are  such 
that  I  canncit  associate  myself  with  any  wholesale  criticism  of  the  State  Depart- 
ment or  with  any  propagandistic  attempt  to  apologize  for  the  actions  of  the 
Soviet  Union  in  current  international  affairs.  Furthermore,  I  am  so  firmly 
wedded  to  the  democratic  procedure  for  arriving  at  decisions  on  scientific  evi- 
dence, that  I  will  not  have  any  part  in  resolutions  or  other  decisions  of  a  con- 
ference where  this  procedure  is  not  guaranteed. 

"Because  of  my  sincere  interest  in  world  peace  and  because  I  accepted  the 
invitation  of  the  conference  in  good  faith.  I  have  prepared  a  paper  arguing 
for  the  scientific  attitude  and  the  increased  use  of  science  in  international  affairs, 
which  I  am  attaching  to  this  letter.  However,  for  the  reasons  outlined  above, 
I  have  grave  doubts  that,  despite  the  best  efforts  of  yourself,  an  atmosphere  of 
scholarly  and  scientific  deliberation  will  prevail  at  the  conference. 

"Rather  than  engage  in  a  travesty  of  a  scientific  meeting,  I  hereby  resign  from 
the  conference." 

I  had  accepted  an  invitation  to  appear  on  the  program  of  what  I  understood 
to  be  a  conference  on  world  peace  which  was  to  involve  a  scholarly  and  scientific 
analysis  of  various  possibilities.  The  invitation  had  been  extended  to  me  by 
Professor  Harlow  Shapley,  of  Harvard,  as  one  scientist  to  another.  As  soon 
as  I  became  aware  of  what  the  real  purposes  of  the  conference  were,  I  withdrew, 
but  by  this  time  my  name  had  already  been  printed  on  the  program.  Since  I 
emphatically  do  not  approve  of  the  manner  in  which  the  conference  was  set  up 
or  handled,  I  naturally  do  not  wish  my  position  to  be  misunderstood  by  the 
Un-American  Affairs  Committee,  or  anyone  else. 

Thanking  you  for  your  consideration,  I  remain. 
Yours  sincerely, 

John  Giixin,  Professor  of  Anthropology. 

Note. — Dr.  Gillin's  resignation  from  the  "Cultural  and  Scientific  Conference 
for  World  Peace"  was  announced  in  the  prints  as  follows : 

[New  York  Times,  Friday,  March  25,  1949] 

Police  Lift  all  Restrictions  on  Cultural  Meeting  Pickets 

Those  withdrawing  as  sponsors  were  Franklin  P.  Adams,  writer ;  Lisa  Sergio, 
lecturer  and  radio  commentator ;  and  John  Gillin,  professor  of  anthropology  at 
the  University  of  North  Carolina ;  in  addition  to  Rabbi  Mordecai  M.  Kaplan,  of 
the  Jewish  Theological  Seminary,  who  announced  his  withdrawal  on  Wednesday.- 

[Newsweek  Magazine,  April  4,  1949] 

Peace:  Evebtbodt  Wars  Over  It 

The  first  result :  Several  non-Communists,  who  had  agreed  to  sponsor  the 
Conference  for  World  Peace  in  belief  that  it  would  be  what  it  proclaimed,  awoke 
to  a  sudden  realization  of  its  true  nature,  and  quit.  Among  them  were  Canada 
Lee,  the  Negro  actor;  Rabbi  Mordecai  M.  Kaplan,  of  the  Jewish  Theological 
Seminary ;  Lisa  Sergio,  the  radio  commentator ;  Prof.  John  Gillin,  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  North  Carolina;  and  Franklin  (Information,  Please)  P.  Adams. 


[Durham  (N.  C.)  Morning  Herald,  Sunday,  March  27,  1949] 

This  newspaper  printed  in  full  Dr.  (lillin's  lettei-  of  resignation  addressed  to 
Dr.  Hurlow  Shapley,  dated  March  2-,  1949,  before  the  beginning  of  the  conference. 

Review  of  the  Scientific  and  Cultural  Conference  for  World  Peace 

A  check  of  the  records  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  discloses 
that  a  clerical  error  has  been  made  in  the  record  of  Henry  A.  Murray,  who  is 
listed  on  page  18  as  having  been  atflliated  "with  from  21  to  30  Communist-front 

His  name  should  be  withdrawn  from  this  particular  section  of  the  report. 
He  is,  however,  properly  listed  as  a  sponsor  of  the  Scientific  and  Cultural 
Conference  for  World  Peace.